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Isla Mar Research Expeditions, LLC
An app provided by Isla Mar Research Expeditions, LLC.



Isla Mar Research Expeditions, LLC
Fish provided by Sea Grant.
Illustrated by Cynthia Gotay and Daniel Irizarri.





All page numbers listed in this app refer to:
Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.
Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

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Select Fish ×

Sort by Family Sort by Shape

Reference / Family: Angelfish×

French Angelfish
Gray Angelfish
Queen Angelfish
Rock Beauty

Reference / Family: Bass & Hamlet×

Barred Hamlet
Black Hamlet
Blue Hamlet
Butter Hamlet
Chalk Bass
Harlequin Bass
Indigo Hamlet
Lantern Bass
Shy Hamlet
Tan Hamlet
Tobaccofish
Yellowbelly Hamlet
Yellowtail Hamlet

Reference / Family: Blennies×

Diamond Blenny
Roughhead Blenny
Saddled Blenny
Sailfin Blenny

Reference / Family: Boxfishes×

Honeycomb Cowfish
Scrawled Cowfish
Smooth Trunkfish
Spotted Trunkfish

Reference / Family: Butterflyfish×

Banded Butterflyfish
Foureye Butterflyfish
Reef Butterflyfish
Spotfin Butterflyfish

Reference / Family: Damselfish×

Beaugregory
Bicolor Damselfish
Blue Chromis
Brown Chromis
Cocoa Damselfish
Dusky Damselfish
Longfin Damselfish
Sergeant Major
Threespot Damselfish
Yellowtail Damselfish

Reference / Family: Drums×

Highhat
Jackknife Fish
Spotted Drum

Reference / Family: Eels×

Brown Garden Eel
Chain Moray
Goldentail Moray
Goldspotted Eel
Green Moray
Spotted Moray

Reference / Family: Filefish×

Orangespotted Filefish
Scrawled Filefish
Slender Filefish
Whitespotted Filefish

Reference / Family: Goatfish×

Spotted Goatfish
Yellow Goatfish

Reference / Family: Gobies×

Bridled Goby
Cleaning Goby
Colon Goby
Goldspot Goby
Masked Goby
Neon Goby
Pallid Goby
Peppermint Goby
Sharknose Goby

Reference / Family: Grouper×

Black Grouper
Coney
Goliath Grouper
Graysby
Nassau Grouper
Red Hind
Rock Hind
Tiger Grouper
Yellowfin Grouper
Yellowmouth Grouper

Reference / Family: Grunts×

Black Margate
Bluestriped Grunt
Caesar Grunt
Cottonwick
French Grunt
Porkfish
Sailors Choice
Smallmouth Grunt
Spanish Grunt
Tomtate
White Grunt
White Margate

Reference / Family: Jacks×

Bar Jack
Blue Runner
Crevalle Jack
Horse-eye Jack

Reference / Family: Parrotfish×

Bluelip Parrotfish
Greenblotch Parrotfish
Midnight Parrotfish
Princess Parrotfish
Queen Parrotfish
Rainbow Parrotfish
Redband Parrotfish
Redtail Parrotfish
Stoplight Parrotfish
Striped Parrotfish
Yellowtail Parrotfish

Reference / Family: Porcupinefish×

Balloonfish
Bridled Burrfish
Porcupinefish

Reference / Family: Porgies×

Pluma

Reference / Family: Puffers×

Bandtail Puffer
Checkered Puffer
Sharpnose Puffer

Reference / Family: Scorpionfish×

Lionfish
Plumed Scorpionfish
Spotted Scorpionfish

Reference / Family: Sharks & Rays×

Atlantic Stingray
Blacktip Shark
Great Hammerhead
Lemon Shark
Nurse Shark
Reef Shark
Southern Stingray
Spotted Eagle Ray
Tiger Shark

Reference / Family: Snapper×

Cubera Snapper
Dog Snapper
Gray Snapper
Lane Snapper
Mahogany Snapper
Mutton Snapper
Schoolmaster
Yellowtail Snapper

Reference / Family: Soapfish×

Freckled Soapfish
Greater Soapfish

Reference / Family: Squirrelfish×

Blackbar Soldierfish
Longjaw Squirrelfish
Longspine Squirrelfish
Reef Squirrelfish
Squirrelfish

Reference / Family: Surgeonfish×

Blue Tang
Doctorfish
Ocean Surgeonfish

Reference / Family: Triggerfish×

Black Durgon
Ocean Triggerfish
Queen Triggerfish
Sargassum Triggerfish

Reference / Family: Wrasses×

Blackear Wrasse
Bluehead
Clown Wrasse
Creole Wrasse
Dwarf Wrasse
Green Razorfish
Hogfish
Puddingwife
Rosy Razorfish
Slippery Dick
Spanish Hogfish
Yellowcheek Wrasse
Yellowhead Wrasse

Reference / Family: Other×

Fairy Basslet
Great Barracuda
Peacock Flounder
Redspotted Hawkfish
Sand Diver
Sand Tilefish
Sharksucker
Trumpetfish
Yellowhead Jawfish

Reference / Shape: Boxy×

Balloonfish
Bandtail Puffer
Bridled Burrfish
Checkered Puffer
Honeycomb Cowfish
Porcupinefish
Scrawled Cowfish
Sharpnose Puffer
Smooth Trunkfish
Spotted Trunkfish

Reference / Shape: Camouflaged, Frills×

Lionfish
Plumed Scorpionfish
Spotted Scorpionfish

Reference / Shape: Deep Ovals, Flat Body×

Black Durgon
Ocean Triggerfish
Orangespotted Filefish
Peacock Flounder
Queen Triggerfish
Sargassum Triggerfish
Scrawled Filefish
Slender Filefish
Whitespotted Filefish

Reference / Shape: Disks & Ovals×

Banded Butterflyfish
Barred Hamlet
Beaugregory
Bicolor Damselfish
Black Hamlet
Blue Chromis
Blue Hamlet
Blue Tang
Brown Chromis
Butter Hamlet
Cocoa Damselfish
Doctorfish
Dusky Damselfish
Foureye Butterflyfish
French Angelfish
Gray Angelfish
Indigo Hamlet
Longfin Damselfish
Ocean Surgeonfish
Queen Angelfish
Reef Butterflyfish
Rock Beauty
Sergeant Major
Shy Hamlet
Spotfin Butterflyfish
Tan Hamlet
Threespot Damselfish
Yellowbelly Hamlet
Yellowtail Damselfish
Yellowtail Hamlet

Reference / Shape: Eel Like×

Reference / Shape: Elongated Body×

Blackbar Soldierfish
Blackear Wrasse
Bluehead
Bluelip Parrotfish
Chalk Bass
Clown Wrasse
Creole Wrasse
Dwarf Wrasse
Green Razorfish
Greenblotch Parrotfish
Harlequin Bass
Highhat
Jackknife Fish
Lantern Bass
Longjaw Squirrelfish
Longspine Squirrelfish
Midnight Parrotfish
Princess Parrotfish
Puddingwife
Queen Parrotfish
Rainbow Parrotfish
Redband Parrotfish
Redtail Parrotfish
Reef Squirrelfish
Rosy Razorfish
Slippery Dick
Spanish Hogfish
Spotted Drum
Squirrelfish
Stoplight Parrotfish
Striped Parrotfish
Tobaccofish
Yellowcheek Wrasse
Yellowhead Wrasse
Yellowtail Parrotfish

Reference / Shape: Heavy Body×

Black Grouper
Coney
Goliath Grouper
Graysby
Hogfish
Nassau Grouper
Red Hind
Rock Hind
Tiger Grouper
Yellowfin Grouper
Yellowmouth Grouper

Reference / Shape: Sharks & Rays×

Atlantic Stingray
Blacktip Shark
Great Hammerhead
Lemon Shark
Nurse Shark
Reef Shark
Southern Stingray
Spotted Eagle Ray
Tiger Shark

Reference / Shape: Silvery Body×

Bar Jack
Blue Runner
Crevalle Jack
Great Barracuda
Horse-eye Jack

Reference / Shape: Slender Body×

Sand Diver
Sand Tilefish
Sharksucker
Trumpetfish

Reference / Shape: Sloping Heads×

Black Margate
Bluestriped Grunt
Caesar Grunt
Cottonwick
Cubera Snapper
Dog Snapper
Freckled Soapfish
French Grunt
Gray Snapper
Greater Soapfish
Lane Snapper
Mahogany Snapper
Mutton Snapper
Pluma
Porkfish
Redspotted Hawkfish
Sailors Choice
Schoolmaster
Smallmouth Grunt
Spanish Grunt
Spotted Goatfish
Tomtate
White Grunt
White Margate
Yellow Goatfish
Yellowtail Snapper

Reference / Shape: Tiny, Elongated×

Bridled Goby
Cleaning Goby
Colon Goby
Diamond Blenny
Fairy Basslet
Goldspot Goby
Masked Goby
Neon Goby
Pallid Goby
Peppermint Goby
Roughhead Blenny
Saddled Blenny
Sailfin Blenny
Sharknose Goby
Yellowhead Jawfish

Reference / Species×

Atlantic Stingray
Dasyatis sabina



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Dasyatidae

Reference / Species×

Balloonfish
Diodon holocanthus



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Diodontidae

Reference / Species×

Banded Butterflyfish
Chaetodon striatus



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Chaetodontidae
Max Size (cm)
16
Depth Range (m)
3 - 55
Distinct Features
Compressed oval, disk shape. Small mouth and pointed snout. Adult coloration is silvery white with black bands on the body. A dark black band crosses the eye, one band is level with the pectoral fin, one is level with the front of the soft dorsal and anal fins and a final band from the soft dorsal across the caudal peduncle to the anal fin base. There is also a broad black stripe along the soft dorsal and anal fins. The outer edge of the caudal fin is black. Juvenile coloration is similar to the adult, but with a large black spot bordered in white along the rear edge of the dorsal fin. Dorsal: XII, 19-20; Anal: III, 16-17; Caudal: rounded.

🔍  View distinct features
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to North Carolina, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Juveniles can be found in seagrass beds.
Behavior
Swim around the top of reefs, usually in pairs. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Planktivorous
Reference

Pg. 29, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Bandtail Puffer
Sphoeroides spengleri



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Tetraodontidae
Max Size (cm)
30
Depth Range (m)
2 - 40
Distinct Features
Oblong body, thick and inflatable. Head is short, jaws form a strong beak. Coloration is light brown to gray with large brown spots. The lower side of the body has a row of 10-15 largely noticeable dark black spots. Caudal fin has a black bar at the front and another at the rear. Dorsal: 8, Anal: 7, Caudal: bluntly rounded.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Massachusetts and Bermuda, south to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, around reefs and seagrass beds.
Behavior
Can be found roaming around reefs or close to the bottom. Will camouflage itself in seagrass beds. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on invertebrates
Reference

Pg. 447, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Bar Jack
Caranx ruber



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Carangidae
Max Size (cm)
69
Depth Range (m)
0 - 70
Distinct Features
Elongated and moderately deep, compressed body. Slightly rounded snout. Coloration is silvery with a bright blue stripe beginning at the snout, along the top of the back and ends at the lower lobe of the tail. The stripe is bordered by black from under the margin of the second dorsal fin to the tip of the caudal fin. Dorsal: VII + I, 26-30; Anal: II + I, 23-26; Caudal: forked.

🔍  View distinct features
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to New Jersey, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Also swims in open water over reefs
Behavior
Small schools but also can found solitary. Can be found feeding with goatfish and stingrays. Harmless to divers, but curious of them.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish, shrimp and other invertebrates.
Reference

Pg. 47, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Barred Hamlet
Hypoplectrus puella



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Serranidae
Max Size (cm)
15
Depth Range (m)
3 - 90
Distinct Features
Head and body is deep and strongly compressed. Snout is relatively short. Coloration is tan in the dorsal region and yellowish/white ventral region. Oblique brown bars through the eye to the bottom of the operculum, additional bar from the beginning of the dorsal fin to the pectoral fin, and then a broad brown bar at midbody with thin bars under the soft dorsal fin and extending onto the caudal peduncle. Dorsal and anal fins are white/gray. Pelvic fins are yellow. Small blue spots on the snout and blue ring around the eye with thin blue bars before the eye and across the operculum. Dorsal: X, 14-17; Anal: III, 7; Caudal: slightly forked.

🔍  View distinct features
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Remain near the bottom.
Behavior
Solitary and shy, harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish and invertebrates
Reference

Pg. 147, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Beaugregory
Stegastes leucostictus



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Pomacentridae
Max Size (cm)
12
Depth Range (m)
0 - 15
Distinct Features
Relatively elongated, plump and compressed with bluntly pointed snout. Coloration in adults is variable with integrated patterns and colors; typically found as a gray/brown body with yellowish spots on the scales of the upper dorsal region. Small blue spots are evenly distributed over most of the head and body. In Juveniles, coloration is typically bright yellow while the upper head and dorsal region are bright blue. Blue lines on the snout and eyes that extend into the upper dorsal region. A black spot with blue borders is located near the anterior of the dorsal fin. Looks similar to the juvenile of S. variabilis except the spot on the dorsal fin does not extend onto the upper body. Dorsal: XII, 13-16; Anal: II, 12-14; Caudal: bluntly forked with rounded lobes.

🔍  View distinct features
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Flat back reef areas associated with coral edges and rocky rubble.
Behavior
Territorial but not as aggressive as other damselfish. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on algae and invertebrates
Reference

pg. 135, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Bicolor Damselfish
Stegastes partitus



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Pomacentridae
Max Size (cm)
10
Depth Range (m)
0 - 100
Distinct Features
Relatively elongated, robust and compressed body, small mouth. Coloration is the same for adults and juveniles; can vary in color pattern. Typically observed as a tricolor or bicolor combination. Head and foreward half of body is usually black, while the rear half is white. May contain an orange or yellow wash on the lower half of the forebody. Dorsal: XII, 14-17; Anal: II, 13-15; Caudal: bluntly forked lobes with angular tips.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Shallow reefs and rocky areas, patch reefs, sandy areas with scattered coral rubble and algae.
Behavior
Males will aggressively defend egg patches. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on algae and invertebrates
Reference

Pg. 129, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Black Durgon
Melichthys niger



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Balistidae

Reference / Species×

Black Grouper
Mycteroperca bonaci



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Serranidae

Reference / Species×

Black Hamlet
Hypoplectrus nigricans



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Serranidae
Max Size (cm)
15
Depth Range (m)
3 - 67
Distinct Features
Head and body is deep and strongly compressed. Snout is relatively short with downward pointing edges. Pelvic fins are unusually long and may be edged by a bright blue line. Body will be completely dark, either a black or dark purplish color, occasionally can be a dark brown. Dorsal: X, 14-17. Caudal: forked

🔍  View distinct features
Distribution
Belize to Panama, uncommon in Florida, but common in the Bahamas through the rest of Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated.
Behavior
Usually solitary. Found near the bottom around soft and hard corals.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish and crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 153, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Black Margate
Anisotremus surinamensis



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Haemulidae
Max Size (cm)
75
Depth Range (m)
0 - 50
Distinct Features
Deep, compressed body with high back. Head is short and blunt with small mouth. Body is silvery to pale gray with a dark blotch from behind the pectoral fin extending down to the belly and below the lateral line. Moderate to large, visible scales. Fins are black. Dorsal: XII-XIII, 16-18. Anal: III, 8-10. Caudal: forked
Distribution
Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Prefers caves, ledges and overhangs.
Behavior
Solitary or small groups
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on fish and crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 106, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Blackbar Soldierfish
Myripristis jacobus



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Holocentridae
Max Size (cm)
25
Depth Range (m)
0 - 100
Distinct Features
Oval and deep body with a moderately large mouth and blunt snout. Forehead is convex with a very large eye. Coloration is solid red all over with a black bar behind the head, white outer edges of the dorsal, caudal, pelvic and anal fins. Outer edges of the dorsal spines are white. Dorsal: X + I, 12-15; Anal: IV, 12-13; Caudal: forked.

🔍  View distinct features
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to North Carolina, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Hide in dark recesses or under the ledge.
Behavior
Often gather in large schools. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Planktivorous
Reference

Pg. 253, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Blackear Wrasse
Halichoeres poeyi



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Labridae

Reference / Species×

Blacktip Shark
Carcharhinus limbatus



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Carcharhinidae

Reference / Species×

Blue Chromis
Chromis cyanea



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Pomacentridae
Max Size (cm)
15
Depth Range (m)
3 - 60
Distinct Features
Compressed and elongated oval shape; Slender body with deeply forked tail. Coloration is a bright blue with darker blue/black along the dorsal surface and exterior edges of the caudal fin. Dorsal: XII, 12; Anal: II, 12; Caudal: forked.

🔍  View distinct features
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Typically found along the outer edges of the reef; swim in water column above reef.
Behavior
Often found in loose agreggations, sometimes seen with C. multilineata. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Planktivorous
Reference

Pg. 141, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Blue Hamlet
Hypoplectrus gemma



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Serranidae
Max Size (cm)
13
Depth Range (m)
3 - 20
Distinct Features
Head and body is deep and strongly compressed. Snout is relatively short with downward pointing edges at the mouth. Body is completely bright blue. The outer margins of the caudal fin have darker blue/black edges. Dorsal: X, 14-17. Caudal: very slightly forked
Distribution
Uncommonly reported in Bahamas, Florida, Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated.
Behavior
Usually solitary. Found near the bottom around soft and hard corals.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish and crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 153, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Blue Runner
Caranx crysos



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Carangidae
Max Size (cm)
70
Depth Range (m)
0 - 100
Distinct Features
Moderately elongated body, but compressed. Coloration is light blue to olive above and silvery below. Obvious black spot is at the corner of the operculum, above the pectoral fin. Tips of caudal fin are black. Lobes of the dorsal and anal fins are distinctly raised. Dorsal fin: VIII + I, 19-21; Anal fin: II + I, 19-21; Caudal fin: forked.

🔍  View distinct features
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to New Jersey, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, brackish and reef associated. Open water over reefs; juveniles may be found in floating Sargassum
Behavior
Solitary or in large schools, often feed with goatfishes and shadow stingrays. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on fish, shrimp and other invertebrates. Opportunistic feeders.
Reference

pg. 47, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Blue Tang
Acanthurus coeruleus



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Acanthuridae
Max Size (cm)
36
Depth Range (m)
0 - 40
Distinct Features
Compressed and oval shaped, steep head profile. Single continuous dorsal fin with low profile. Not as elongated as A. chirurgus and A. tractus. Adults: body varies in color from powder blue to deep purple; white or yellow spine at base of tail on caudal peduncle. Juveniles: bright yellow body color overall. Intermediates: blue head and body with yellow tail. Dorsal fin: IX, 26-28; Anal fin: III, 24-26; Caudal fin: concave with pointed tips.

🔍  View distinct features
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to New York, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
marine, reef associated. Reefs and rocky substrate, often shallow.
Behavior
Can be solitary, but often in aggregations with A. chirurgus and A. tractus. Harmless to divers
Feeding Ecology
Herbivorous; Important herbivore to maintaining reef health by feeding on algae
Reference

pg. 33, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Bluehead
Thalassoma bifasciatum



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Labridae
Max Size (cm)
15
Depth Range (m)
0 - 40
Distinct Features
Elongate and compressed body, fusiform body. Coloration in adults terminal phase is blue head, bright white triangular patch with broad black edges just behind the pectoral fin. The remainder of the body is greenish. Initial phase coloration is variable but can be with an upper half of the head and body as a dark gray/brown with 4 to 5 white bars extending across the body dorsoventrally. A second inital phase coloration commonly observed is upper head and body is black with a yellow stripe from the eye to the tail, the lower head and body is white. There is a black dot at the front of the dorsal fin. Juvenile color phase is defined as yellow upper body and white lower body with a black stripe from the snout to base of caudal fin, dorsal fin has a black blotch at the front. Dorsal: VIII, 13; Anal: III, 11; Caudal: square in juveniles, strongly concave in terminal phase.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Swim above reefs
Behavior
Forms aggregations on shallow reefs. Males can be found chasing or being followed by females; this behavior is typically observed when a terminal phase male is seen with several others of a different color phase (females). Juveniles may form cleaning stations. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on plankton and benthic invertebrates
Reference

Pg. 231, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Bluelip Parrotfish
Cryptotomus roseus



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Scaridae
Max Size (cm)
15
Depth Range (m)
1 - 58
Distinct Features
Elongated cigar shaped body with pointed snout. Teeth fused into a beak. Initial phase and juvenile: dorsal body is tan to reddish brown, fading into whitish on the underside. There may be two pale whitish stripes along head and body. Terminal phase: snout to head and dorsal part of the body is greenish blue, lower head is pale yellow that fades to a pale greenish throughout the rest of the body. Two pinkish stripes from the mouth to the eye, which converge into pink spots on the operculum. Broad pinkish stripe from eye to base of the tail. Dorsal: IX, 10. Anal: III, 9. Caudal: convex
Distribution
Western/Central Atlantic, Bermuda to Brazil including the Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Prefer shallow seagrass beds, occasional in coral rubble or in gorgonian plains. Typically shallow, rarely found on deep reefs.
Behavior
Darts around rapidly, stopping occasionally to feed. Initial phase is often in pairs or small schools, terminal phase is solitary.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on algae
Reference

Pg. 220, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Bluestriped Grunt
Haemulon sciurus



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Family Name
Haemulidae
Max Size (cm)
50
Depth Range (m)
0 - 40
Distinct Features
Oblong body and compressed, head is blunt. Coloration is yellow with dense blue stripes. Soft dorsal and caudal fins are dark with a yellow border. Pectoral, pelvic and anal fins are yellow. Dorsal: XII, 16-17; Anal: III, 9; Caudal: forked.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to South Carolina, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated on hard bottoms and seagrass beds, mangroves.
Behavior
Congregate in small to midsize schools near reefs and around drop offs. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish, crustaceans and other invertebrates.
Reference

Pg. 97, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Bridled Burrfish
Chilomycterus antennatus



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Family Name
Diodontidae

Reference / Species×

Bridled Goby
Coryphopterus glaucofraenum



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Family Name
Gobiidae
Max Size (cm)
8
Depth Range (m)
1 - 60
Distinct Features
Elongated body, snout is slightly rounded. Relatively large eyes positioned on top of the head. Pale to translucent but can be darker depending on the habitat. Body has three rows of spots forming loose stripes. First and third row are brownish while the middle row is translucent blue. The rows extend from head to caudal fin. White bridled from the mouth to upper operculum. Fins are clear to dusky. Dorsal: VI + I, 9. Anal: 1, 10. Caudal: blunt

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Distribution
North Carolina, Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Inhabits sandy bottoms near the base of coral reefs.
Behavior
Can be in small groups. Perch on top of the sand near their holes.
Feeding Ecology
Unknown
Reference

Pg. 294, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Brown Chromis
Chromis multilineata



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Family Name
Pomacentridae
Max Size (cm)
20
Depth Range (m)
3 - 60
Distinct Features
Compressed and elongated oval shape, slender body with deeply forked tail. Coloration is pale brownish/gray with yellow borders on the dorsal fin and tips of the caudal fin. Large black spot located at the base of the pectoral fins. Dorsal: XIII, 12-13; Anal: II, 11-13; Caudal: forked.

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Typically found along the outer edges of the reef; swims in water column above reef
Behavior
Often found in loose agreggations, sometimes seen with C. cyanea. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Planktivorous
Reference

Pg. 143, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Brown Garden Eel
Heteroconger longissimus



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Family Name
Congridae

Reference / Species×

Butter Hamlet
Hypoplectrus unicolor



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Family Name
Serranidae
Max Size (cm)
12
Depth Range (m)
3 - 35
Distinct Features
Head and body is deep and strongly compressed. Snout is relatively short with downward pointing edges at the mouth. Body is usually a pale yellow to grayish white. Blue markings can be present on the head and gill cover, and edges of pelvic and dorsal fins. Black spot outlined in blue is generally present on the snout. A black saddle is present on the caudal peduncle. Two black spots can also sometimes be found on the nares. Dorsal: X, 14-17. Caudal: slightly forked

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean but absent in the Gulf of Mexico
Habitats
Marine, reef associated.
Behavior
Usually solitary. Found near the bottom around soft and hard corals.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish and crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 149, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Caesar Grunt
Haemulon carbonarium



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Family Name
Haemulidae
Max Size (cm)
40
Depth Range (m)
2 - 30
Distinct Features
Oblong, compressed body with sloping head and tapered body. Head is deep, blunt. Small mouth. Coloration on the body is silvery, gray undertones to dusky black on rear dorsal fin. Head and body have about ten thin coppery/yellowish stripes. Head can have a bluish undertone. Caudal fin is black. Front dorsal fin has yellow edge. Anal fin has a dark outer margin. Dorsal: XII, 15-16. Anal: III, 8. Caudal: forked
Distribution
Bermuda to Brazil including Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Juveniles can be found in seagrass beds and mangroves
Behavior
Drift in small, mixed schools with other grunts, near coral reefs.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 98, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Chain Moray
Echidna catenata



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Family Name
Muraenidae

Reference / Species×

Chalk Bass
Serranus tortugarum



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Family Name
Serranidae
Max Size (cm)
8
Depth Range (m)
2 - 91
Distinct Features
Elongate body, moderately compressed. The lower lip is exposed when mouth is closed (underbite). The snout is shorter than the length of the eye. Body coloration and undertone is pale blue to pink, and will appear iridescent when seen underwater. Distinct series of alternating pale and dark (orange) bars across the dorsal region. Dorsal: X, 12. Anal: III, 7. Caudal: mostly blunt

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Distribution
Bahamas to Southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Often found in sandy, rubble areas near reefs.
Behavior
Usually solitary but can be found in small groups. Found hovering over sandy areas near reefs.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on plankton
Reference

Pg. 191, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Checkered Puffer
Sphoeroides testudineus



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Family Name
Tetraodontidae

Reference / Species×

Cleaning Goby
Elacatinus genie



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Family Name
Gobiidae
Max Size (cm)
5
Depth Range (m)
1 - 30
Distinct Features
Elongated body, head is compressed, mouth is under pointed snout. Narrow bright yellow "V" on the snout that continues as a stripe over the eye and along the midbody and extends to the caudal fin. Stripe becomes whitish and widens towards the caudal fin. The midbody stripe is flanked by black on the upper body and below the stripe that fades to white on the lower body and under the head. Dorsal: VII, 11. Anal: 1, 10. Caudal: rounded

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Distribution
Bahamas, Cuba
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Inhabits living coral heads
Behavior
Engages in cleaning behavior by forming cleaning stations. Congregate in cleaning stations where they perch in groups on coral heads.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on ectoparasites
Reference

Pg. 276, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Clown Wrasse
Halichoeres maculipinna



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Family Name
Labridae
Max Size (cm)
15
Depth Range (m)
2 - 25
Distinct Features
Elongated and compressed body. Continuous dorsal fin. Coloration for juveniles from bottom to top: lower half is white followed by a thick brown stripe from the tip of the mouth to the base of the tail, followed by a yellow stripe, with a brown stripe above that and along the dorsal edge. Coloration for initial phase: head is yellowish/green with red lines that radiate forward toward the head, and back down the body from the eye. There is also a red stripe from the mouth to the edge of the operculum. The upper body is greenish/brownish to white and below that is short pink bars on various scales, followed by a double black spot on the dorsal spines. Terminal phase coloration is a yellow head below, with green above that and red lines; three reddish lines mark the top of the head, while two \"U\" shaped lines cover the snout; dark midbody blotch. Dorsal: IX, 11; Anal: III, 11; Caudal: blun
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to North Carolina, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated and adjacent sandy bottoms.
Behavior
Swim over the reefs and adjacent sand. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on invertebrates
Reference

Pg. 235, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Cocoa Damselfish
Stegastes variabilis



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Family Name
Pomacentridae
Max Size (cm)
12
Depth Range (m)
0 - 30
Distinct Features
Moderately deep body, oblong and compressed with an angular snout and small mouth. Coloration in adults is variable, but typically a brown/purple upper body with a yellowish tint on the lower body and pectoral, pelvic, anal and caudal fins. Juvenile coloration is typically purple/blue on the upper head and back, with bright yellow lower half. Blue lines on the snout and eyes that extend into the upper dorsal region. A black spot with blue borders is located near the anterior of the dorsal fin and extends onto the upper body. Looks similar to the juvenile of S. leucostictus except the spot on the dorsal fin does extend onto the body. Dorsal: XII, 14-17; Anal: II, 12-15; Caudal: bluntly forked with rounded lobes.

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Found in sheltered reef habitats, fore reefs with living coral.
Behavior
Territorial but not as aggressive as other damselfish. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on algae and invertebrates
Reference

Pg. 133, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Colon Goby
Coryphopterus dicrus



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Family Name
Gobiidae
Max Size (cm)
5
Depth Range (m)
1 - 20
Distinct Features
Elongated body, snout has a straight profile with large eye on top of head. Small mouth. Body is translucent gray, eye has dark radiating lines. Dark brownish bar below the eye and often several bars behind the eye. Irregular dark spots on midbody from back of the head to the caudal fin. Sides of the body has numerous yellow spots. Two stacked, often joining, dark spots that can form a bar on the base of the caudal peduncle. Ventral fins translucent. Dorsal: VI, 9. Anal: I, 9. Caudal: rounded

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Distribution
Georgia to Florida, Caribbean to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Inhabit sandy coral rubble at the base of the coral reef.
Behavior
Perch on the bottom and blends with the background.
Feeding Ecology
Unknown
Reference

Pg. 296, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Coney
Cephalopholis fulva



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Family Name
Serranidae
Max Size (cm)
41
Depth Range (m)
1 - 70
Distinct Features
Robust and oblong in shape, big lips. Coloration can vary between three color phases: 1.) uniform red or yellow/golden, 2.) orange/brown and 3.) bicolor, upper half is dark reddish brown and lower half is white. All three color phases have dark ringed pale blue spots. Two small black spots at the upper base of the tail and tip of the lower jaw. Dorsal fin: IIX, 14-16; Anal fin: III, 9; Caudal fin: convex with angular edges.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to South Carolina, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Prefers coral reefs and rocky bottoms.
Behavior
Unconcerned by divers, but can be curious. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Mostly piscivorous.
Reference

pg. 175, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Cottonwick
Haemulon melanurum



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Family Name
Haemulidae
Max Size (cm)
35
Depth Range (m)
1 - 50
Distinct Features
Oblong body, slightly elongated, compressed. Sloping head and tapered body. Head is bluntly pointed. Coloration is silvery gray undertone with black stripe that originates at the front of the dorsal fin and widens towards the rear, through the upper half of the tail base and includes the upper half of the lower caudal fork. Head and body have yellow/bronze stripes. White outer margins on the dorsal and caudal fin. Other fins are pale to white. Black stripe through the eye. Dorsal: XII, 15-17. Anal: III, 9. Caudal: forked
Distribution
Florida, Caribbean to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. On clear water reefs.
Behavior
Solitary, or drifts near the bottom in small schools.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 100, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Creole Wrasse
Clepticus parrae



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Family Name
Labridae
Max Size (cm)
30
Depth Range (m)
0 - 100
Distinct Features
Elongated oval shape with rounded snout, tail is concave with pointed edges. Coloration is dark purple/violet or lavender for the initial phase. Terminal phase have a yellow/reddish posterior coloration. Dorsal: XII, 10; Anal: III, 12; Caudal: concave.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Found mid water along edges of reef.
Behavior
Forms schools, harmless to divres.
Feeding Ecology
Planktivorous, but also feeds on invertebrates
Reference

Pg. 225, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Crevalle Jack
Caranx hippos



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Family Name
Carangidae
Max Size (cm)
124
Depth Range (m)
1 - 350
Distinct Features
Oblong body, moderately compressed. Adults: Black irregular spot on pectoral fin, distinct black spot close to the top corner of the operculum. Body coloration is greenish/bluish to bluish/black above with white below. Juveniles: Silver to yellowish body coloration with six black body bars, translucent fins. Dorsal fin: VIII + I, 19-21; Anal fin: II + I, 16-17. Front lobes of both fins are raised. Caudal fin: forked.

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico; North to Nova Scotia and south to Uruguay
Habitats
Marine, brackish. Generally found in neritic waters near continential shelves. Prefer clear water, rarely swim over reefs. Juveniles may be in estuaries.
Behavior
Larger fish may be solitary, but often form large schools. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish, shrimp and other invertebrates.
Reference

pg. 49, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Cubera Snapper
Lutjanus cyanopterus



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Family Name
Lutjanidae
Max Size (cm)
160
Depth Range (m)
1 - 60
Distinct Features
Oblong body is relatively slender, compressed. Mouth is relatively large with visible strong canines at front of top and bottom jaws. Coloration in adults is grayish brown undertones with reddish tint, particularly in the front dorsal portion of the body. Often have visible pale bars on the dorsal portion of the body. Dorsal and caudal fins are gray. Anal and pelvic fins are reddish brown. Juveniles show more prominent bars than in the adults. Dorsal: X, 14. Anal: III, 7-8. Caudal: blunt
Distribution
Nova Scotia, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, to Southeast Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Juveniles occupy inshore around mangroves. Adults associated with reefs and rocky bottoms.
Behavior
Solitary, deep reef dwelling for adults. Skiddish when approached by divers. Can form schools.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on fish and crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 116, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Diamond Blenny
Malacoctenus boehlkei



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Family Name
Labrisomidae
Max Size (cm)
7
Depth Range (m)
2 - 30
Distinct Features
Elongated body, head is slender with a pointed snout. Pair of heavily branched cirri on the top of the head. Branched cirrus over the eyes. Slender pelvic fins that reach past the anal fin origin. The head is yellowish brown, body is pale reddish tan. Brown irregular stripe along the front of the head from eye to snout. Seven brownish red saddles below the dorsal fin. Lower body has pale spots enclosed by reddish brown diamond shapes in a row. A large, black, yellow-ringed ocellus at the front of the dorsal fin. Dorsal: XVIII-XXIII, 9-12. Anal: I, 3. Caudal: blunt

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Distribution
Bahamas to Southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Inhabit shallow areas with sand/coral rubble and rocky shores. Found on both forereef drop offs and lagoonal patch reefs.
Behavior
Solitary. Perch on top of rubble.
Feeding Ecology
Unknown
Reference

Pg. 322, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Doctorfish
Acanthurus chirurgus



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Family Name
Acanthuridae
Max Size (cm)
35
Depth Range (m)
0 - 30
Distinct Features
Compressed and elongated oval shaped body. Single continuous dorsal fin with low profile. Steep head profile, body is uniform bluish gray to dark brown color with 8-12 well spaced narrow, darker gray vertical bars. Dorsal fin: IX, 24-25; Anal fin: III, 21-23; Caudal fin: slightly concave with blunt tips and pale bar at the base. Spine at caudal peduncle, along each side.

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Massachusetts and Bermuda, south to Brazil and tropical West Africa
Habitats
marine, reef associated. Reefs and rocky substrate, often shallow.
Behavior
Typically found in groups of five or more, and often in loose aggregations with A. coeruleus and A. tractus. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Herbivorous; Important herbivore to maintaining reef health by feeding on algae
Reference

pg. 37, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Dog Snapper
Lutjanus jocu



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Family Name
Lutjanidae
Max Size (cm)
130
Depth Range (m)
5 - 65
Distinct Features
Relatively deep and compressed in body size, slightly sloping head. Coloration is olive with a bronze tint on the back and upper sides, with occasional pale bars. The lower portion of the body is reddish to pale copper. A pale triangle is visible under the eye, similar to a teardrop. Dorsal: X, 14; Anal: III, 8; Caudal: slightly concave.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Massachusetts and Bermuda, south to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Prefer reefs, but also found on wrecks and rocky inshore, shaded reefs.
Behavior
Primarily solitary. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on fish and crustaceans.
Reference

Pg. 119, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Dusky Damselfish
Stegastes adustus



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Family Name
Pomacentridae
Max Size (cm)
15
Depth Range (m)
0 - 20
Distinct Features
Oval and robust, compressed in body shape. Small mouth. Coloration is adults is a uniform gray brown in the body and fins. There is a narrow dark edge to the anal fin. Juvenile coloration has a brillant orange wash from the snout to the end of the spiny dorsal fin and may have blue spots. The lower body is a bluish purple that extends into the fins, including the second dorsal fin. There are two black spots ringed with blue, one below the dorsal fin and one at the caudal peduncle. Dorsal: XII, 14-17; Anal: II, 13-15; Caudal: rounded lobes.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Shallow reefs and rocky areas, juveniles can be found in seagrass beds
Behavior
Can be territorial and will aggressively defend. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on algae and invertebrates
Reference

Pg. 131, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Dwarf Wrasse
Doratonotus megalepis



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Family Name
Labridae

Reference / Species×

Fairy Basslet
Gramma loreto



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Family Name
Grammatidae
Max Size (cm)
8
Depth Range (m)
2 - 65
Distinct Features
Elongated and compressed body, large eye and distinctly long pelvic fins. Spot at top of dorsal fin, body is split in coloration - front half is purple, back half is yellow. Pale purple markings on the face. Dorsal: XI - XIII, 9-11; Anal: III, 6-10; Caudal: blunt to very slightly forked.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico; south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Often found underneath ledges and overhangs.
Behavior
Commonly observed to be upside down under ledges; forms small groups. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on ectoparasites of other fish.
Reference

Pg. 199, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Foureye Butterflyfish
Chaetodon capistratus



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Family Name
Chaetodontidae
Max Size (cm)
15
Depth Range (m)
2 - 20
Distinct Features
Compressed oval, disk shape. Small mouth, pointed snout. Adult coloration is light gray with pale yellow on the sides, white ringed black spot at rear upper body near base of dorsal fin and tail. Black bar through the eye, angular black chevrons from top to bottom of the body, pointing forward towards head. Pelvic fins are yellow. Dorsal fin: XIII, 18-20; Anal fin: III, 16-17; Caudal fin: rounded.

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Massachusetts and Bermuda, south to southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Juveniles can be found in mangroves and seagrass beds.
Behavior
Often in pairs, harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on zoantharians, polychaetes, tunicates and gorgonians.
Reference

Pg. 29, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Freckled Soapfish
Rypticus bistrispinus



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Family Name
Serranidae
Max Size (cm)
15
Depth Range (m)
2 - 430
Distinct Features
Elongated, very compressed body with gradually sloping forehead. Pointed snout with protruding lower jaw. Broad dark reddish brown area begins at the snout and extends through the eye along the upper back, which then pales in coloration as it extends to the rear dorsal fin. Pale yellowish/white below the stripe. Rear dorsal and caudal fin are brownish. Densely packed small dark brown spots on upper body that fades to more irregularly packed spots at the lower body. Dorsal: II, 24-27. Anal: 0, 15-17. Caudal: rounded

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Distribution
South Carolina, Caribbean to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Mixed bottoms of sand and rock rubble on shallow patch reefs, usually.
Behavior
Reclusive, hides in recesses of the reef. Solitary. Often found resting along their sides on the bottom.
Feeding Ecology
Unknown
Reference

Pg. 194, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

French Angelfish
Pomacanthus paru



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Family Name
Pomacanthidae
Max Size (cm)
41
Depth Range (m)
1 - 70
Distinct Features
Deep compressed body, almost circular. Deep head with a small mouth and short snout. Coloration in adults is dark gray with bright yellow edges around the scales, fins are black and the base of the pectoral fin is yellow. Juveniles coloration is black with three yellow bars through the body, tail is black and outlined with a yellow band, also a yellow line down the center of the snout. May have blue edges to the pelvic and anal fins. Dorsal: X, 29-31; Anal: III, 22-24, Caudal: bluntly convex.

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to New York, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Juveniles can be found in seagrass beds.
Behavior
Adults swim over reefs often in pairs. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on sponges, algae and tunicates
Reference

Pg. 23, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

French Grunt
Haemulon flavolineatum



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Haemulidae
Max Size (cm)
30
Depth Range (m)
1 - 40
Distinct Features
Oblong body and compressed. Head is bluntly pointed, large eyes. Coloration depicts silvery gray with distinct yellow stripes and all fins are yellows. Stripes on lower portion of the body are diagonal, upper stripes are irregular. Dorsal: XII, 14-16; Anal: III, 8: Caudal: forked.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to South Carolina, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated on hard bottoms and seagrass beds.
Behavior
Often form large schools. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish, crustaceans and other invertebrates.
Reference

pg. 97, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Goldentail Moray
Gymnothorax miliaris



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Family Name
Muraenidae

Reference / Species×

Goldspot Goby
Gnatholepis thompsoni



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Family Name
Gobiidae
Max Size (cm)
8
Depth Range (m)
1 - 50
Distinct Features
Elongated body, head is thick and blunt. Mouth is positioned slightly under the snout. Body is whitish with narrow dark bar from top of the head, through the eye and extends to bottom of the head. Prominent yellow spot above the pectoral fin base. Dark stripe extends from eye to the spot, second dark stripe starts at front operculum and extends to middle of pectoral fin base. Dorsal fins have bluish edges and a series of irregular spots that form stripes. Lower body has dark blotches, approximately four. Dorsal: VI, 11. Anal: I, 11. Caudal: rounded

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Distribution
Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Inhabits sandy coral rubble areas near reefs.
Behavior
Perches on the sand near protective cover. Often occurs with the Bridled goby.
Feeding Ecology
Filter feeds from the sand
Reference

Pg. 292, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Goldspotted Eel
Myrichthys ocellatus



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Family Name
Ophichthidae

Reference / Species×

Goliath Grouper
Epinephelus itajara



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Family Name
Serranidae

Reference / Species×

Gray Angelfish
Pomacanthus arcuatus



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Family Name
Pomacanthidae
Max Size (cm)
60
Depth Range (m)
3 - 60
Distinct Features
Deep compressed body, almost circular. Deep head with a small mouth and short snout. Coloration for adults is grayish large body scales that have darker centers and paler edges. Yellow pectoral fin base. Juvenile coloration is black with three yellow bars through the body, base of caudal fin is yellow with a black center and rear of caudal fin is transparent. Also has a yellow line down the snout. May have blue edges to the pelvic and anal fins. Dorsal: IX, 31-33; Anal: III, 23-25; Caudal: square.

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to New York, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Juveniles can be found in seagrass beds.
Behavior
Adults swim over reefs often in pairs. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on sponges, algae and tunicates
Reference

Pg. 25, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Gray Snapper
Lutjanus griseus



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Family Name
Lutjanidae
Max Size (cm)
65
Depth Range (m)
1 - 180
Distinct Features
Body is slender and compressed, the head is relatively pointed. Coloration is variable; the upper portion of the body can be gray/green to dark olive with a reddish tint while the lower parts are paler. There is often a broad oblique bar that extends from the tip of the snout to the origin of the dorsal fin. Pale bars on the upper body could be visible, more obviously in the juveniles. Dorsal: X, 14; Anal: III, 8; Caudal: slightly concave.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Massachusetts and Bermuda, south to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated, mangroves, estuaries and brackish waters.
Behavior
Drift in small schools, near mangrove lagoons and rocky outcroppings. Can be encountered on reefs. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on fish and crustaceans.
Reference

Pg. 121, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Graysby
Cephalopholis cruentata



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Family Name
Serranidae
Max Size (cm)
42
Depth Range (m)
1 - 170
Distinct Features
Robust and oblong in shape, big lips. Coloration can vary, but typically is light reddish brown to gray with darker brown to reddish spots all over body. Three to five pale or dark spots along the base of the dorsal fin. Dorsal fin: IX, 13-15; Anal fin: III, 8; Caudal fin: rounded.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to North Carolina, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Prefers coral reefs with small ledges and caves.
Behavior
Can be shy to divers, and harmless.
Feeding Ecology
Mostly piscivorous.
Reference

pg. 171, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Great Barracuda
Sphyraena barracuda



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Family Name
Sphyraenidae
Max Size (cm)
200
Depth Range (m)
0 - 100
Distinct Features
Elongated, robust body and cylindrical at the front. Head is long with a long pointed snout. Large protractable mouth with large teeth. Coloration is grayish above and paler below. About 20 diagonal bars along the back, with black spots along the lower rear half of the body. Dorsal: V + I, 8-10; Anal: II, 8; Caudal: forked with center lobes.

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Distribution
Circumtropical. Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Massachusetts and Bermuda, south to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Also found in open ocean, seagrass beds and mangroves usually in the water column.
Behavior
Usually solitary or in small groups. Juveniles found in mangroves and seagrass beds. Often swim with an open mouth. Attracted to shiny objects, do not usually harm divers unless provoked, but are curious.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish and occasionally shrimp.
Reference

Pg. 67, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Great Hammerhead
Sphyrna mokarran



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Family Name
Sphyrnidae

Reference / Species×

Greater Soapfish
Rypticus saponaceus



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Family Name
Serranidae
Max Size (cm)
35
Depth Range (m)
0 - 140
Distinct Features
Elongated, very compressed body with gradually sloping forehead. Pointed snout with protruding lower jaw (underbite). Body is dark brown to gray undertones covered with numerous, irregularly distributed pale blotches. Dorsal: III, 23-26. Anal: 0, 16-18. Caudal: rounded

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Distribution
North Carolina, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Mixed bottoms of sand and rock rubble on shallow patch reefs, usually.
Behavior
Reclusive, hides in recesses of the reef. Solitary. Often found resting along their sides on the bottom.
Feeding Ecology
Unknown
Reference

Pg. 194, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Green Moray
Gymnothorax funebris



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Family Name
Muraenidae
Max Size (cm)
190
Depth Range (m)
0 - 33
Distinct Features
Elongated and compressed at rear. Tail is tapered. Ribbon like in shape. Snout is elongated and pointed, bulbous nape. Tube-like nostrils are obvious. One long, continuous dorsal and anal fin. Coloration is uniform dark green to brown.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Massachusetts and Bermuda, south to Brazil
Habitats
Marine and brackish, mainly found on reefs but occasionally on mangroves.
Behavior
Commonly observed in holes or crevices, head facing out with mouth agape. Not typically a threat to divers unless harassed.
Feeding Ecology
Piscivorous
Reference

Pg. 489, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Green Razorfish
Xyrichtys splendens



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Family Name
Labridae

Reference / Species×

Greenblotch Parrotfish
Sparisoma atomarium



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Family Name
Scaridae
Max Size (cm)
15
Depth Range (m)
0 - 100
Distinct Features
Elongated and somewhat compressed. Teeth fused into a beak. Initial phase: reddish dorsal side, whitish ventral coloration, with three red stripes along the side and lower portion of the base of the tail. Pearly spots can be seen on the belly. Terminal phase: upper portion of the body and head are yellowish to reddish, or greenish brown. Lower head and body are blue-green. There is a short blue bar along the top corner of the operculum. Tail and anal fins are orange-red. There is a black spot on the base of the pectoral fin. Dorsal: IX, 10. Anal: III, 9. Caudal: convex
Distribution
Bermuda, Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean and south to the Caribbean coast of South America
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Found often along steep, sloping drop offs of reefs. Also found in seagrass beds and algal plains.
Behavior
Initial and juvenile phase often found in pairs or small groups, adults often solitary.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on algae
Reference

Pg. 218, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Harlequin Bass
Serranus tigrinus



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Family Name
Serranidae
Max Size (cm)
12
Depth Range (m)
0 - 55
Distinct Features
Elongate body, moderately compressed. The lower lip is exposed when mouth is closed (underbite). The snout is shorter than the length of the eye. Body has whitish undertones from the midline up, while the lower body is yellow undertoned. Black blotches on the lower head and throat, and approximately eight black bars on the body. Black band around the base of the fin. Dorsal: X, 12. Anal: III, 7. Caudal: mostly blunt.

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Often found on sandy rubble areas around reefs or on the reef itself. Occasionally found in seagrass.
Behavior
Solitary or in pairs.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds mainly on crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 181, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Highhat
Pareques acuminatus



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Family Name
Sciaenidae

Reference / Species×

Hogfish
Lachnolaimus maximus



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Family Name
Labridae
Max Size (cm)
91
Depth Range (m)
1 - 30
Distinct Features
Deep oblong and compressed, the upper head is slightly concave to straight. Snout is long, pointed and the mouth is protrusible. First three spines of dorsal fin are very long and distinct, tail is straight in juveniles and concave in adults with pointed tips. Coloration in juveniles marbled red/gray/brown and tan blotches throughout, with prominent black blotch at lower rear corner of the dorsal fin. Adult terminal phase coloration is whitish body with a dark bar on the caudal fin, black on the forehead and nape with a red eye and dark edge at base of dorsal, pelvic and anal fins. Dorsal: XIV, 11; Anal: III, 10; Caudal: straight or concave.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to North Carolina, Bermuda and south to southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Most common around open sandy bottoms.
Behavior
Digs through sandy bottoms in search of food, can change color to blend with background. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on mollusks and sea urchins.
Reference

Pg. 223, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Honeycomb Cowfish
Acanthostracion polygonius



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Family Name
Ostraciidae

Reference / Species×

Horse-eye Jack
Caranx latus



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Family Name
Carangidae
Max Size (cm)
101
Depth Range (m)
1 - 140
Distinct Features
Moderately compressed body and moderately sloping head. Body is dark blue to gray above and bright silvery white below, large eye with bright yellow tail. Dark scuts extending to caudal peduncle. Usually have dark tips on the dorsal and caudal fins, front lobes of dorsal and anal fins are raised. Dorsal fin: VIII + I, 19-22; Anal fin: II + I, 16-18; Caudal fin: forked.

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to New Jersey, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, brackish and sometimes freshwater. May mix with C. hippos in schools over offshore reefs. Juveniles may be in sandy bottom along shores.
Behavior
Pelagic and schooling. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish, shrimp and other invertebrates.
Reference

pg. 47, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Indigo Hamlet
Hypoplectrus indigo



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Family Name
Serranidae
Max Size (cm)
15
Depth Range (m)
3 - 54
Distinct Features
Head and body is deep and strongly compressed. Snout is relatively short with downward pointing edges at the mouth. Body is blue undertones with approximately 5 blue and 5-6 white bars of uneven width. The white bars are narrower than the blue bars. Clear pectoral fins, blue ventral fins. Dorsal: X, 14-17. Caudal: very slightly forked

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated.
Behavior
Usually solitary. Found near the bottom around soft and hard corals.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish and crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 149, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Jackknife Fish
Equetus lanceolatus



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Family Name
Sciaenidae

Reference / Species×

Lane Snapper
Lutjanus synagris



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Family Name
Lutjanidae
Max Size (cm)
71
Depth Range (m)
1 - 400
Distinct Features
Oblong and compressed body. Coloration is silvery pink to red, with six to eight narrow yellow stripes along the rear of the head and body. Oblique yellow stripes on the midbody above the top yellow stripes. Often a black blotch above the lateral line and under the front of the soft dorsal fin. Dorsal: X, 12; Anal: III, 8; Caudal: Slightly concave.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to North Carolina, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Common to shallow reefs inshore areas, occasionally deeper reefs.
Behavior
Drift in schools. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on fish and crustaceans.
Reference

Pg. 121, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Lantern Bass
Serranus baldwini



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Family Name
Serranidae
Max Size (cm)
10
Depth Range (m)
1 - 80
Distinct Features
Elongate body, moderately compressed. The lower lip is exposed when mouth is closed (underbite). The snout is shorter than the length of the eye. Top of the body and the head are pale brown with darker brown blotches. The underside of the body is whitish undertone with orange blotches and a yellowish line separating the top and bottom colorations. There is a vertical row of four black spots at the base of the tail before the soft rays. Dorsal: X, 10. Anal: III, 7. Caudal: blunt

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Distribution
North Carolina to Brazil, including the Caribbean but uncommon to the Bahamas
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Often found on sandy bottoms with rubble or on seagrass
Behavior
Usually solitary, found hovering over sandy areas.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on fish and crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 181, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Lemon Shark
Negaprion brevirostris



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Family Name
Carcharhinidae

Reference / Species×

Lionfish
Pterois volitans



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Family Name
Scorpaenidae
Max Size (cm)
38
Depth Range (m)
1 - 310
Distinct Features
Steep head profile with spines on the head. Can have long cephalic tentacles over the eyes with branched barbels on lower jaw. Elongated venomous spines on the dorsal fin, and frilly large pectoral fins, nonvenomous. Coloration is pale with about 8 reddish/brownish/blackish broad bars. Stripes present on all fins. Dorsal spines, pelvic and anal spines are all venomous. Dorsal: XIII, 9-12; Anal: III, 6-8; Caudal: rounded.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to New York, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Can be found in mangroves, seagrass beds, artifical substrates, sandy bottoms and occasionally estuaries.
Behavior
Hide in caves and ledges during day. Can be solitary or in groups. Venomous and can be harmful to divers if harassed.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish, crustaceans and other invertebrates. Invasive species.
Reference

Pg. 413, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Longfin Damselfish
Stegastes diencaeus



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Family Name
Pomacentridae
Max Size (cm)
12
Depth Range (m)
0 - 25
Distinct Features
Deeply oval body, compressed. Mouth is small and protrusible. Dorsal and anal fins extend past the base of the caudal peduncle, long and rounded. Coloration in adults is black to grayish. Upper portion of the head can have a yellowish/brown tint. Outer margin of the anal fin has a thin bright blue border. Dorsal: XII, 14-17. Anal: II, 13. Caudal: bluntly forked, large rounded lobes

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Distribution
Bahamas to Southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Frequently in shallower reefs, calm areas.
Behavior
Territorial. Solitary.
Feeding Ecology
Planktivorous
Reference

Pg. 130, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Longjaw Squirrelfish
Neoniphon marianus



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Family Name
Holocentridae
Max Size (cm)
25
Depth Range (m)
5 - 120
Distinct Features
Oblong, elongated body with small mouth and protruding lower jaw. Pointed snout, large eye. Silvery red body color, lower third of the head is white. Body has a series of prominent thin golden stripes. Dorsal spines are golden with white tips, with a row of white blotches along the lower third of the dorsal fin. Caudal fin has darker red margins. Soft dorsal fin and anal fin are clear. Dorsal: XI, 12-14. Anal: IV, 7-10. Caudal: forked

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Distribution
Gulf of Mexico to Southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Rare on shallow reefs, more abundant with depths
Behavior
Solitary, hide in or near dark crevices in the reef.
Feeding Ecology
Unknown
Reference

Pg. 250, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Longspine Squirrelfish
Holocentrus rufus



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Family Name
Holocentridae
Max Size (cm)
45
Depth Range (m)
1 - 300
Distinct Features
Oblong, slender and compressed body with pointed head and large eyes, large mouth. Head and body are red. Caudal peduncle and caudal fin are yellowish white. Dorsal spines are reddish with prominent white triangular blotches at the tip of each spine. Soft dorsal, anal, pelvic and pectoral fins are reddish. Dorsal: XI, 14-16. Anal: III-IV, 10. Caudal: forked

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Distribution
North Carolina, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean to Southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated.
Behavior
Solitary, drifts in shaded areas near the bottom, ocassionally gather in groups. More active at night, but visible during the day. Will dart into a hole or crevice if approached by a diver.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on crustaceans and other invertebrates
Reference

Pg. 248, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Mahogany Snapper
Lutjanus mahogoni



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Family Name
Lutjanidae
Max Size (cm)
50
Depth Range (m)
0 - 120
Distinct Features
Oblong compressed body, large eye and relatively large mouth. Teeth not usually visible. Body coloration in adults is a pearly white undertone with a bronze tint on the upper portion near the dorsal fin, with a coppery tint on the ventral side. Dorsal and caudal margins are red with black outline on the caudal fin. Can have a dark spot on the lateral line under the back portion of the dorsal fin. Juvenile coloration is pearly white body with dark spot on lateral line below back half of the dorsal fin (looks similar to juvenile lane snapper). Tops of the dorsal spines are reddish and the pelvic and anal fins are yellow. Dorsal: X, 12. Anal: III, 8. Caudal: slightly forked
Distribution
North Carolina to Southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Juveniles found in shallow water in sandy, seagrass bottoms. Adults around reefs.
Behavior
Typically solitary in shaded, secluded areas of the reefs. Can form schools.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on fish and crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 118, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Masked Goby
Coryphopterus personatus



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Family Name
Gobiidae
Max Size (cm)
4
Depth Range (m)
2 - 70
Distinct Features
Elongated body, head profile is slightly rounded. Large eye. Forward half of the body is deeper/broader while the second half of the body is more slender. Body is translucent. Snout, mouth and area below the eye is darker with a clear patch at the top of the head. A stripe of orange and pale white/cream blotches occurs at the midbody, extending to the eye and base of the caudal fin. Second dorsal spine is longer than the others. Dorsal: VI, 10. Anal: I, 10. Caudal: minimally bluntly forked.

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Distribution
Bermuda, Florida to Southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Inhabits caves, shaded areas of the reef.
Behavior
Hovers in shaded areas, often in groups. Often confused with the Glass goby (C. hyalinus) which is generally deeper, however depth is not a reliable distinction between the two species.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on plankton
Reference

Pg. 300, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Midnight Parrotfish
Scarus coelestinus



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Family Name
Scaridae
Max Size (cm)
77
Depth Range (m)
1 - 75
Distinct Features
Elongated oval body, somewhat compressed. Teeth fused into a beak. Overall body coloration is black to navy blue and the center of the body scales are bright blue. Bright to pale blue markings on head. Beak is blue. Dorsal: IX, 10. Anal: III, 9. Caudal: W shaped with elongated lobes
Distribution
Bermuda to Caribbean coast of South America
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Usually found shallower than 20m.
Behavior
Large adults are often solitary, swimming around reefs. Smaller adults can be in schools or solitary swimming with surgeonfish.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on algae, major herbivore
Reference

Pg. 202, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Mutton Snapper
Lutjanus analis



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Family Name
Lutjanidae
Max Size (cm)
94
Depth Range (m)
1 - 95
Distinct Features
Relatively deep and compressed in body size, slightly sloping head and larger mouth. Coloration on body is olive with reddish tint on the back with lower body a whitish with red tint. Fins are reddish, especially the anal and caudal fins. Blue lines and some spots are noticeable below and before the eye. Black spot on the midbody below the rear dorsal fin, which can be absent on some occasions. Very pointed anal fin. Dorsal: X-XI, 14; Anal: III, 8; Caudal: forked.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Mass. & Bermuda, south to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated, mangroves, vegetated & sandy bottoms. Can also be observed around the edges of reefs
Behavior
Ususally solitary
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on fish and crustaceans, IUCN Red List Vulnerable
Reference

Pg. 117, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Nassau Grouper
Epinephelus striatus



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Serranidae
Max Size (cm)
100
Depth Range (m)
5 - 100
Distinct Features
Body is robust, compressed and head is steeply sloped. Coloration is five irregular reddish brown bars over a tan background. Can change color from pale to almost black. Diagonal bars from snout across eyes, to the start of the dorsal fin. Black saddle spot at base of caudal fin. Tips of dorsal spines are yellow. Dorsal: XI, 16-18; Anal: III, 8; Caudal: blunt
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to Guyana
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Adults found on hard bottoms, juveniles seen in seagrass.
Behavior
Unconcerned by divers, but can be curious; often found resting on bottom blending with surroundings. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Mostly piscivorous. IUCN Red List; Endangered Species. Overfished.
Reference

Pg. 159, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Neon Goby
Elacatinus oceanops



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Family Name
Gobiidae
Max Size (cm)
5
Depth Range (m)
1 - 40
Distinct Features
Elongated body, head is compressed, mouth is under pointed snout. Body is black with an iridescent broad blue stripe along the body, starting at the snout just barely in front of the eye and extends to the caudal fin. The blue stripe does not connect on the snout. Dorsal: VII, 11-12. Anal: I, 11-12. Caudal: bluntly rounded

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Distribution
Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Cuba
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Inhabit coral heads and on rocky areas. Occasionally found on the outer surface of large sponges.
Behavior
Cleaner fish, congregates in cleaning stations where they perch in groups on coral heads.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on ectoparasites
Reference

Pg. 272, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Nurse Shark
Ginglymostoma cirratum



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Family Name
Ginglymostomatidae
Max Size (cm)
430
Depth Range (m)
0 - 130
Distinct Features
Head is broad and flattened, snout is rounded. Elongated body with noticable nostrils with large barbells, small mouth. Two dorsal fins. Caudal fin is asymmetrical, with the upper lobe being drastically larger than the lower lobe. Coloration is gray/brown to yellow/brown.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico; North to Rhode Island, Bermuda and south to Brazil
Habitats
Marine; found at reefs, mangroves and sand flats.
Behavior
Unconcerned by divers, but can be curious. Often found swimming close to the bottom, laying under ledges or on sand flats. Could be harmful to divers if harassed.
Feeding Ecology
Scavenger and opportunistic
Reference

Pg. 515, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Ocean Surgeonfish
Acanthurus tractus



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Family Name
Acanthuridae
Max Size (cm)
35
Depth Range (m)
0 - 40
Distinct Features
Compressed and elongated oval shaped body. Steep head profile, body is a uniform color with no bars; typically pale blue, white/gray to darker blue/brown. Single, continuous low profile dorsal fin, depressable spine at caudal peduncle. Dorsal fin: IX, 23-26; Anal fin: III, 21-23; Caudal fin: concave with pointed tips, often has pale band around base of fin; Pectoral fins: translucent with yellow hue.

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Maine to southern Caribbean; A. bahianus reported as distinct species found in Brazil.
Habitats
marine, reef associated. Reefs and rocky substrate, often shallow.
Behavior
Typically found in groups of five or more, and often in loose aggregations with A. coeruleus and A. chirurgus. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Herbivorous; Important herbivore to maintaining reef health by feeding on algae
Reference

pg. 34, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Reference / Species×

Ocean Triggerfish
Canthidermis sufflamen



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Family Name
Balistidae

Reference / Species×

Orangespotted Filefish
Cantherhines pullus



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Family Name
Monacanthidae

Reference / Species×

Pallid Goby
Coryphopterus eidolon



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Family Name
Gobiidae
Max Size (cm)
6
Depth Range (m)
5 - 30
Distinct Features
Elongated body, snout profile is straight, large eyes on top of head. Body is pale to translucent with yellow to orange marks. Eye has a ring of dark spots. A thin, black bar is located on the base of the caudal fin. Row of yellowish blotches that form stripes extending from behind the eye. Three triangular blotches along the midbody. Dorsal fins are translucent yellow. Dorsal: VI, 9. Anal: 1, 8-9. Caudal: blunt to bluntly rounded

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Distribution
Bahamas to Southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Live in coral reef areas with white, sandy channels. Commonly found on the sand within spur and groove.
Behavior
Perches on the sand and around coral reefs in sheltered locations.
Feeding Ecology
Unknown
Reference

Pg. 298, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Peacock Flounder
Bothus lunatus



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Family Name
Bothidae
Max Size (cm)
46
Depth Range (m)
0 - 100
Distinct Features
Body is a deep oval shape, flattened. Both eyes are found on the dorsal side of the body, irregularly placed on a diagonal. Long pectoral fin, distinct notch in the upper head profile above the lips. Coloration has numerous blue rings over the entire body and blue spots on the fins and head. Background coloration is shades of brown to tan. Ability to darken or pale to match surroundings. Dorsal fin: 91-99; Anal fin: 70-76.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean. Absent in Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Often found in seagrass, sandy areas, mangroves and coral rubble.
Behavior
Rests motionless on sandy bottoms, partially buried in the sand to blend with surroundings. Glides over substrate in wave-like motion. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on octopuses, crustaceans and small fishes.
Reference

pg. 387, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Peppermint Goby
Coryphopterus lipernes



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Family Name
Gobiidae
Max Size (cm)
3
Depth Range (m)
10 - 40
Distinct Features
Small, elongated and slender with rounded head and translucent body; two dorsal fins. Coloration is translucent yellow and top of the snout is blue. Blends with enivornment. Dorsal: VI + I, 9; Anal: I, 9; Caudal: blunt.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Observed on surface of live coral heads.
Behavior
Usually solitary, but can be found in small groups close to the reef. Shy of divers and harmless.
Feeding Ecology
Planktivorous
Reference

Pg. 301, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Pluma
Calamus pennatula



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Family Name
Sparidae
Max Size (cm)
37
Depth Range (m)
0 - 85
Distinct Features
Deep compressed body, moderately steep upper head profile. Large eyes, sloping snout with large mouth and thick lips. Blue, rectangular stripes behind the eye and bluish/brassy irregular lines and markings underneath the eye. Coloration is a silvery background with a yellowish hue. Dorsal fin: XIII, 12; Anal fin: III, 10; Caudal fin: forked.

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Distribution
Bahamas, Caribbean. South to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Inhabit seagrass beds, reefs and adjacent sandy areas.
Behavior
Solitary or in schools. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on crabs and mollusks
Reference

pg. 81, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Plumed Scorpionfish
Scorpaena grandicornis



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Family Name
Scorpaenidae

Reference / Species×

Porcupinefish
Diodon hystrix



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Family Name
Diodontidae

Reference / Species×

Porkfish
Anisotremus virginicus



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Family Name
Haemulidae
Max Size (cm)
40
Depth Range (m)
1 - 50
Distinct Features
Body is deep, compressed with a sloping head. Adult coloration is silvery. Snout and top of head are yellow with alternating yellow/silver stripes along the body. A pair of thick black bars extend from top of head through the eye, and the other extending from the base of the dorsal fin, behind the operculum and ends at the bottom of the operculum. All fins are yellow. Juvenile coloration is a yellow head and upper front portion of the body, with a yellow first dorsal and pelvic fin. Body is translucent and white with two black stripes and a black spot at caudal peduncle. Dorsal: XII, 16-17; Anal: III, 9-11; Caudal: forked.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico; south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Rocky and coral reefs.
Behavior
Found in small aggregations. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on benthic invertebrates
Reference

Pg. 109, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Princess Parrotfish
Scarus taeniopterus



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Family Name
Scaridae
Max Size (cm)
35
Depth Range (m)
1 - 30
Distinct Features
Elongated body, somewhat compressed. Bluntly pointed snout with teeth fused into a beak. Coloration for adults terminal phase is a bluish upper body that fades to a whitish. The scales have pink bars. Short yellow stripe along midbody above the pectoral fin. Top of the head is blue/gray and the bottom is blue. A green stripe starts at the snout and continues to rear of the operculum. Another green stripe starts at the top edge of the eye and continue to rear of the operculum. Dorsal and anal fins have a green base, pink center and blue outer edge. The caudal fin is blue with pink top and bottom outer edges. Initial phase of the adults is similar to S. iseri but with a more brownish/reddish tint to the upper body and tail base with two white stripes above and below the eye and no yellow on the snout. Juvenile coloration is similar to initial phase. Dorsal: IX, 10; Anal: III, 9; Caudal: bluntly rounded.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Found along the reef.
Behavior
Juveniles swim with mixed schools of S. iseri. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on algae from the corals.
Reference

Pg. 209, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Puddingwife
Halichoeres radiatus



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Family Name
Labridae
Max Size (cm)
50
Depth Range (m)
2 - 55
Distinct Features
Elongated and compressed body, mouth with thick lips. Coloration for terminal phase adult is brownish with a blue gray tint, many blue lines radiate from the eye and the scales have blue spots. There are several white saddles along the edge of the dorsal half of the body. Fins have many blue lines and spots. Outer edge of the caudal fin is yellow. Initial phase is orange brown head and body, with many blue gray lines radiating from the eye. Scales have blue spots, five white blotches along the upper back. Fins are yellow brown with blue lines and spots. Juveniles are orange yellow with two yellow/gold stripes down the midbody and a white stripe and bars between. Large blue spot at the mid dorsal fin, upper back that is ringed with white or pale blue. Dorsal: IX, 11; Anal: III, 12; Caudal: blunt.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to North Carolina, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated.
Behavior
Constantly swim around the reef. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on benthic invertebrates
Reference

Pg. 227, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Queen Angelfish
Holacanthus ciliaris



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Family Name
Pomacanthidae
Max Size (cm)
45
Depth Range (m)
3 - 60
Distinct Features
Deep oval, strongly compressed. Snout is blunt and short with a small mouth. Edges of dorsal and anal fin trail past the caudal fin in adults. Coloration for juveniles is yellow/bluish and black body with white, curved bars at the midbody and yellow caudal fin. Adult coloration is blue and yellow, with blue/black crown on top of head that is ringed with blue; Pelvic, pectoral and caudal fins are yellow; midbody is blue and yellow; trailing edges of the dorsal and anal fins are bright blue. Dorsal: XIV, 19-21; Anal: III, 20-21; Caudal: slightly convex to blunt.

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to North Carolina, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated.
Behavior
Blend in with sea fans and corals. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on sponges, algae and tunicates
Reference

Pg. 21, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Queen Parrotfish
Scarus vetula



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Family Name
Scaridae
Max Size (cm)
60
Depth Range (m)
1 - 30
Distinct Features
Elongated, somewhat compressed body. Teeth fused into a beak. Initial and juvenile phase: body is dark brown to gray/black with a broad white stripe from the base of the pectoral fin to the lower portion of the caudal peduncle. Head is gray on top with whitish color below. Dorsal and caudal fins are dark brown to black and the anal fin is white. Terminal phase: Head and body is blue to blue-green and there is a blue green stripe from the bottom of the mouth that passes to under the eye. A blue-green bar is found above the mouth and a short blue stripe is seen through the top of the eye. The body scales can have pink edges. The caudal fin has a pink base and lobes and the rear of the caudal fin is blue-green. Dorsal: IX, 10. Anal: III, 9. Caudal: slightly concave in juvenile, slightly W shaped with elongated lobes for terminal
Distribution
Bermuda to Southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated.
Behavior
Swims around reefs and rocky shorelines. Schools with other parrotfish and other herbivorous fish.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on algae
Reference

Pg. 204, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Queen Triggerfish
Balistes vetula



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Family Name
Balistidae
Max Size (cm)
60
Depth Range (m)
2 - 275
Distinct Features
Oblong body, deep and robust but compressed. Dorsal and caudal fins have extended tips. Body has two blue stripes on snout between the mouth and the eye, across the cheeks. Small, black lines are found radiating around the eye. Coloration is yellow, deep purple and blue. Fins have a bright blue border. Juveniles/Intermediates: gray brown with blue lines across the lower portion of the head with dashed oblique lines on the body. First dorsal fin can be locked and erect while the second could be half the size of the first. Anterior rays of the second dorsal and anal fins are distinctly longer than posterior rays, tapered appearance. Dorsal fin: III, 29-31 ; Anal fin: 27-28.

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Massachusetts and Bermuda, south to Brazil and eastern Atlantic
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Typically found over reefs, but can also travel over sandy and grassy areas.
Behavior
Solitary, but can school. Interesting feeding mechanism, uses jets of water to flip over urchins to feed. Harmless to divers, but reports of bites if harassed.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds mostly on benthic invertebrates
Reference

pg. 459, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Rainbow Parrotfish
Scarus guacamaia



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Family Name
Scaridae
Max Size (cm)
120
Depth Range (m)
1 - 50
Distinct Features
Elongated, oval and somewhat compressed body. Teeth are fused into a beak. Coloration is orange/brown head to pectoral fins with bright green body. Dorsal, tail, anal fins have green base with orange/brown center and green marginal edges. Pelvic fins are orange. Beak is green/brown. Dorsal: IX, 10. Anal: III, 9. Caudal: W shaped with elongated lobes.
Distribution
Bermuda to Southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Juveniles may be found in schools occupying near shore reefs and seagrass beds.
Behavior
Swims around reefs and rocky shoreline habitats. Juveniles form schools, adults are often solitary.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on algae, major herbivore
Reference

Pg. 204, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Red Hind
Epinephelus guttatus



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Family Name
Serranidae
Max Size (cm)
76
Depth Range (m)
2 - 100
Distinct Features
Body is robust, compressed and head is slightly sloped with big lips. Coloration is whitish background with reddish spots, can pale or darken. Dorsal spines have yellow tips. Remaining dorsal fin, pelvic, anal and caudal fins have dark black edges. Dorsal: XI, 15-16; Anal: III, 8; Caudal: slightly convex.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to North Carolina, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Inhabit shallow patch reefs to deep banks. Drift above the bottom or rest on pelvic fins.
Behavior
Unconcerned by divers, but can be curious. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Mostly piscivorous; commercially important food fish
Reference

Pg. 173, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Redband Parrotfish
Sparisoma aurofrenatum



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Family Name
Scaridae
Max Size (cm)
28
Depth Range (m)
1 - 30
Distinct Features
Elongated body, somewhat compressed. Bluntly pointed snout with teeth fused into a beak. Coloration for adults terminal phase is a greenish/gray with yellow below on the body. The side of the body after the pectoral fin is yellowish/brown with a reddish tint below. A red stripe from the mouth, under the below that ends at the upper operculum. There is a yellow blotch behind the upper corner of the operculum. Dorsal and anal fins are reddish, caudal fin is yellowish/gray bordered in red. Tips of the tail are black. Initial phase coloration is a dark green to gray/blue body with scales that have black outlines, sometimes with two pale stripes from the mouth to the base of the tail. There is also a white spot on the upper tail base just behind the dorsal fin. Dorsal, pelvic, anal and caudal fins are red. Juvenile coloration is reddish/orange to pale brown body with two white stripes that begin at the mouth and just above the eye which continue to the base of the tail. A dark blotch is noticeable behind the operculum. Dorsal: IX, 10; Anal: III, 9; Caudal: slightly concave with pointed tips.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Found along the reef.
Behavior
Juveniles form small schools. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on algae from the corals.
Reference

Pg. 213, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Redspotted Hawkfish
Amblycirrhitus pinos



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Family Name
Cirrhitidae

Reference / Species×

Redtail Parrotfish
Sparisoma chrysopterum



🔍   Tap to enlarge
Family Name
Scaridae
Max Size (cm)
45
Depth Range (m)
1 - 30
Distinct Features
Elongated, somewhat compressed body. Head is relatively long and pointed, flat between the eyes. Teeth are fused to form a beak. Initial phase: grayish brown to reddish brown, ventral scales have reddish spots. Dark spot on the base of the pectoral fin. Caudal fin base is pale with pinkish to red margin edge. Terminal phase: blue-green body fading to paler blue on the underside. Pectoral fin has a black blotch. Caudal fin has blue green base fading to a dark crescent that fades to red crescent at the outer edge of the fin. Dorsal: IX, 10. Anal: III, 9. Caudal: concave in initial phase, strongly concave with elongated lobes in terminal phase
Distribution
Bermuda to Southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Also found on shallow coral rubble and seagrass beds.
Behavior
May be found resting at the bottom. Often found solitary, occasionally in small groups.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on algae
Reference

Pg. 214, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Reef Butterflyfish
Chaetodon sedentarius



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Family Name
Chaetodontidae
Max Size (cm)
18
Depth Range (m)
0 - 172
Distinct Features
Oval body, strongly compressed. Pointed snout with small mouth. Upper portion of the body is yellow that fades into white. The lower body is white. There is a black bar that runs from the front of the dorsal fin, through the eye and down below the mouth. Back edge of the dorsal fin may be outlined in black. There is a black blotch from the base of the dorsal fin rays that runs through the caudal peduncle and down onto the back of the anal fin. Dorsal: XIII-XIV, 20-21. Anal: III, 17-19. Caudal: slightly convex.

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Distribution
Carolinas to Brazil including the Bahamas and Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Usually found shallower than 20m.
Behavior
Often in pairs, swimming over the top of the reef.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on fish eggs and also polychaete worms, shrimps, amphipods and hydroids.
Reference

Pg. 31, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Reef Shark
Carcharhinus perezii



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Family Name
Carcharhinidae

Reference / Species×

Reef Squirrelfish
Sargocentron coruscum



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Family Name
Holocentridae
Max Size (cm)
14
Depth Range (m)
2 - 100
Distinct Features
Oblong, elongated body with pointed snout and small mouth. Large eye. Reddish head, body and fins. White on the ventral side. Body has thin, bright white stripes. Soft dorsal, anal and caudal fins are translucent red. Dorsal spines are red with white tips. A row of white spots are seen along the base of the spines. A large black blotch is on the web membrane between the first three dorsal spines. Dorsal: XI, 12. Anal: IV, 7-8. Caudal: forked

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Distribution
Bermuda to Southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Found on both shallow and deep inshore/offshore reefs.
Behavior
Hides in small crevices in the reef, occasionally peaking out.
Feeding Ecology
Unknown
Reference

Pg. 248, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Rock Beauty
Holacanthus tricolor



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Family Name
Pomacanthidae
Max Size (cm)
35
Depth Range (m)
3 - 143
Distinct Features
Deep compressed body, almost circular. Deep head with a small mouth and short snout. Head, tail and outer edges of the fins are yellow, while the mid body is black. Juveniles may have a black spot ringed in blue at the midbody that disappears as it becomes an adult. Dorsal: XIV, 17-19; Anal: III, 18-20. Caudal: convex

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Georgia, Bermuda and South to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Inhabits rock jetties, rocky reefs and rich coral areas.
Behavior
Establish defined territories that they actively patrol. Juveniles may hid in recesses of the reef.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on tunicates, algae, sponges and other invertebrates.
Reference

Pg. 25, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Rock Hind
Epinephelus adscensiones



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Family Name
Serranidae

Reference / Species×

Rosy Razorfish
Xyrichtys martinicensis



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Family Name
Labridae

Reference / Species×

Roughhead Blenny
Acanthemblemaria aspera



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Family Name
Chaenopsidae
Max Size (cm)
4
Depth Range (m)
1 - 18
Distinct Features
Elongated body, short blunt head. Small pointed spines on the snout that extend back onto the top of the head about halfway to the dorsal fin. Two clusters of spines behind the eyes. One pair of strongly branched cirri over the eyes. Coloration is changeable: males are colorless to dark with many small dark dots on the rear of the head and body, front of dorsal is whitish with a small black ocellus. Females are usually yellowish with three broken lines under the chin/throat, dark spots on the operculum and base of the pectoral fin. Dorsal: XX-XXII, 14-17. Anal: II, 22-25. Caudal: rounded

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Distribution
Bahamas to Southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Inhabit abandoned worm holes in dead coral and rock, or living coral on the reef.
Behavior
Perches with head and forebody extended from the hole. Solitary, but more than one may be found on the same coral head in separate holes.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on amphipods and copepods
Reference

Pg. 344, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Saddled Blenny
Malacoctenus triangulatus



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Family Name
Labrisomidae
Max Size (cm)
6
Depth Range (m)
0 - 20
Distinct Features
Elongated body, head is slender with a bluntly pointed snout. One branched cirri over nostrils, long branched cirri over the eyes, and a pair of heavily branched cirri at the back of the head. Long slender pelvic fins. Pale, yellowish to whitish body. Four to five brownish red triangular saddles along the upper body. Reddish spots along the lower side of the body, below the tips of the saddles. A row of brownish blotches below the saddles and under the reddish spots. Dark spot at front base of the dorsal fin. Dorsal: XIX, 11-13. Anal: II, 20-22. Caudal: blunt

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Distribution
Florida to Southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Lives in a wide variety of habitats containing rocks, corals and sheltered areas.
Behavior
Solitary. Move about the bottom, frequently stop to perch on ventral and caudal fin.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 324, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Sailfin Blenny
Emblemaria pandionis



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Family Name
Chaenopsidae
Max Size (cm)
7
Depth Range (m)
1 - 35
Distinct Features
Elongated body, short blunt head with a steep front profile. Head does not have spines. Nasal cirri are flat and branched while the cirri on the eyes are short and composed on three short branches of equal length. Males have sail-like, bowed out dorsal fin (front half) that is higher than the females. Coloration in males is tan to dark brown/black with barred eye cirri. Dorsal and caudal fin are lighter in color. Small blue spot at the front of the first dorsal spine. Cheek and lower head have blue/white dots. Anal fin has a line of blue spots near the base. Females are light tan with approximately 13 brown blotches along the side of the body. Upper back has pale saddles. Spiny dorsal is tan with oblique brown bars. Dorsal: XXI, 15-16. Anal: II, 23-24. Caudal: rounded

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Distribution
Gulf of Mexico to Southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Live in worm holes and sand/rubble bottoms.
Behavior
Can form loose, small colonies in clear water areas with rock/rubble and sand. Rest in hole with head protruding. Displaying male turns dark instantly and repeatedly flicks its sail-like dorsal fin up and down. Occasionally will move from its sheltered tube with its sail fin open.
Feeding Ecology
Unknown
Reference

Pg. 336, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Sailors Choice
Haemulon parra



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Family Name
Haemulidae
Max Size (cm)
40
Depth Range (m)
0 - 40
Distinct Features
Oblong body, compressed. Sloping head with tapered body. Head it blunt. Silvery gray body with dotted irregular, mostly oblique, stripes along the scale rows. Fins are gray. Dusky coloration on the head. Dorsal: XII, 16-18. Anal: III, 8. Caudal: forked
Distribution
Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Sandy areas with gorgonians. Juveniles found in seagrass beds.
Behavior
Occasionally solitary, normally drift in small schools.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on fish and crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 104, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Sand Diver
Synodus intermedius



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Family Name
Synodontidae
Max Size (cm)
40
Depth Range (m)
1 - 300
Distinct Features
Elongate and cylindrical body, mildly dorsoventrally compressed; pointed snout and large mouth that extends back past the eye. Teeth visible. Coloration is defined as dark spots on upper edge of gill cover, with 8 to 10 diamond shaped markings joined by brown bars that cover the body. Sides of the body are often yellowish to tan. Well camouflaged. Dorsal: 11-12, Anal: 10-13, Caudal: forked.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to North Carolina, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Shallow, sand and mud bottoms; also found in high salinity lagoons.
Behavior
Rest or bury themselves in the sand with head visible. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish and crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 427, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Sand Tilefish
Malacanthus plumieri



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Family Name
Malacanthidae

Reference / Species×

Sargassum Triggerfish
Xanthichthys ringens



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Family Name
Balistidae

Reference / Species×

Schoolmaster
Lutjanus apodus



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Family Name
Lutjanidae
Max Size (cm)
65
Depth Range (m)
1 - 65
Distinct Features
Relatively deep and compressed in body size, slightly sloping head and larger mouth. Coloration on upper head and body is olive with a yellow tint while the lower half is lighter. Juveniles have a series of pale bars on body, however these fade as the fish grows. Fins are distinctly bright yellow. Cheek with an irregular row of blue dots could be present. Dorsal: X, 14; Anal: III, 8; Caudal: slightly forked.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Massachusetts and Bermuda, south to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef asscociated, mangroves and seagrasses. Juveniles typically found in seagrasses, mangrove roots and shallow sandy rubble.
Behavior
Drift in small to medium groups just above the reef, can be observed schooling. Juveniles can be found in shallow basins and mangrove lagoons. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on fish and crustaceans.
Reference

Pg. 125, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Scrawled Cowfish
Acanthostracion quadricornis



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Family Name
Ostraciidae

Reference / Species×

Scrawled Filefish
Aluterus scriptus



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Family Name
Monacanthidae
Max Size (cm)
110
Depth Range (m)
3 - 120
Distinct Features
Compressed and elongated body, dorsal and ventral profiles of head and snout are concave. Small mouth. Covered with blue spots and irregular pattern of black lines and dots. Body color is typically olive, pale gray, tan or golden. Caudal fin is broom-like in shape, but often closed when observed. Two dorsal fins: first is long, slender and eractile straight above the eye; second dorsal fin is continuous to right before the caudal peduncle. Dorsal fins: II, 43-49; Anal fin: 46-52.
Distribution
Circumtropical. Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Massachusetts and Bermuda, south to Brazil.
Habitats
marine, reef associated. Usually less than 30m in depth; sometimes found in lagoons.
Behavior
Juveniles can be found drifting with floating debris. Adults solitary or found in pairs, typically over the reef. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on algae, seagrass, gorgonians, colonial anenomes and tunicates.
Reference

Pg. 469, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Sergeant Major
Abudefdus saxatilis



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Family Name
Pomacentridae
Max Size (cm)
23
Depth Range (m)
0 - 40
Distinct Features
Compressed, oval shaped body. Five black vertical bars, primarily white or silver body with yellow patch on dorsal, upper body. Males may have a bluish tint. Single continuous dorsal fin. Dorsal fin: XIII, 12-13 ; Anal fin: II, 10-13 ; Caudal fin: forked.

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico; North to Rhode Island, Bermuda and South to Uruguay
Habitats
All aquatic marine habitats; often found midwater column and along reef edges
Behavior
Commonly observed in loose aggregations; males guard nests and can be territorial to other fish and divers. Typically are unconcerned with divers; harmless.
Feeding Ecology
Planktivorous, occassionally herbivorous; important member of cleaning stations that pick molted skin and parasites from turtles
Reference

pg. 139, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Sharknose Goby
Elacatinus evelynae



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Family Name
Gobiidae
Max Size (cm)
4
Depth Range (m)
1 - 75
Distinct Features
Elongated body, head is compressed with pointed shark-like snout. Mouth is underneath. Head and body are black with a white to bright yellow "V" across the snout that continues back through the eye as a midbody stripe. The stripe changes color to blue behind the pectoral fin with yellow below, and extends onto to caudal fin. Fins translucent. Dorsal: VII, 11. Anal: I, 10-12. Caudal: rounded

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Distribution
Bahamas to Southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Inhabit coral heads, rock/rubble and large sponges.
Behavior
Cleaner fish, congregates in cleaning stations where they perch in groups on coral heads.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on ectoparasites
Reference

Pg. 274, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Sharksucker
Echeneis naucrates



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Family Name
Echeneidae
Max Size (cm)
90
Depth Range (m)
0 - 50
Distinct Features
Body is slender and long with head disk that contains 18- 23 plates. Plates used to suction to sharks or other pelagic animals. Coloration is gray with white edges and black stripe along the side from the tip of the lower jaw to the caudal fin. Tips of the dorsal, anal and caudal fin have a narrow white stripe. Dorsal: 39, Anal: 36, Caudal: slightly rounded.
Distribution
Circumtropical; Nova Scotia to Uruguay
Habitats
Pelagic, swims solitary or in pairs; often found trailing sharks or other larger marine animals
Behavior
Interested in divers, will commonly be found attached or swimming near larger fish, sharks, rays, turtles or divers. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on fish, bits of prey left over from the host, and the host\'s parasite
Reference

Pg. 485, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Sharpnose Puffer
Canthigaster rostrata



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Family Name
Tetraodontidae
Max Size (cm)
12
Depth Range (m)
1 - 85
Distinct Features
Robust and slightly compressed body, inflatable. Large head with a pointed snout. Coloration is brown upper body and yellow below. Thin blue lines are found around the eye, while thin blue bars are seen on the snout. Blue spots are observable throughout most of the body. Caudal fin is yellow, upper and lower edges are black. Dorsal: 10-11; Anal: 9; Caudal: rounded to blunt.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Also found in seagrass beds
Behavior
Solitary or in pairs. Harmless to divers unless harassed.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on seagrass, sponge, crabs and other crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 445, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Shy Hamlet
Hypoplectrus guttavarius



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Family Name
Serranidae
Max Size (cm)
15
Depth Range (m)
3 - 30
Distinct Features
Head and body is deep and strongly compressed. Snout is relatively short with downward pointing edges at the mouth. Blue markings may be present on the snout of the head. All fins are yellow. The yellow on the body may extend down to the underbelly but does not extend to the base of the tail. A dark area under the dorsal fin is present on the midbody and does extend to the caudal peduncle. Dorsal: X, 14-17. Caudal: very slightly forked.

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Distribution
Bahamas to the Caribbean, but uncommon to Southern Caribbean.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated.
Behavior
Usually solitary. Found near the bottom around soft and hard corals and often near stangs of Staghorn coral.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish and crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 151, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Slender Filefish
Monacanthus tuckeri



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Family Name
Monacanthidae

Reference / Species×

Slippery Dick
Halichoeres bivittatus



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Family Name
Labridae
Max Size (cm)
35
Depth Range (m)
1 - 55
Distinct Features
Elongated and compressed body. Coloration for terminal phase is a greenish head and body with pink lines from the eye to the snout, top of the head and upper dorsal region. Pink lines also extend from the mouth across to the operculum. A black and pink spot is found at the corner of the operculum, a dark gray stripe extends from here to the caudal peduncle. Dorsal and anal fins are pink with green stripe and the caudal fin is green blue with three pairs of pink stripes that converge at the end of the fin. Initial phase coloration is variable but generally similiar to the terminal phase but less strongly colored OR can be white with brown stripe from the snout to the base of the tail that breaks into spots towards the caudal fin. May have second paler stripe starting at under the snout to the base of the tail and a black/yellow spot at the corner of the operculum. Also may have a black spot at the center of the dorsal fin. Dorsal: IX, 10; Anal: III, 12; Caudal: blunt.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to North Carolina, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Found on reef edges, seagrass and algal beds also on sand and rubble bottoms.
Behavior
Constantly swim about the reefs and adjacent seagrass beds. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish and gastropods.
Reference

Pg. 233, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Smallmouth Grunt
Haemulon chrysargyreum



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Family Name
Haemulidae
Max Size (cm)
25
Depth Range (m)
0 - 30
Distinct Features
Oblong body, compressed, moderately elongated. Sloping head and tapered body. Head is blunt. Large eye. Coloration is silvery gray, head and body have five to six yellow stripes. All fins except the pectoral fins are yellow. Dorsal: XII, 12-14. Anal: III, 9-10. Caudal: forked
Distribution
Florida to Southern Caribbean
Habitats
Florida to Southern Caribbean
Behavior
Often found Acroporids. Drift in small schools near the bottom in the shelter of coral reefs.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 96, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Smooth Trunkfish
Lactophrys trigonus



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Family Name
Ostraciidae
Max Size (cm)
47
Depth Range (m)
2 - 50
Distinct Features
Oblong body with obvious hump. Shaped like a box, long and slender caudal peduncle. Coloration is black/brown with numerous white or yellow spots. The sides of the body behind the pectoral fin have a pale honeycomb pattern. Lips and the base of all fins are black. Juveniles are black with white spots and pea shaped with pointed snout. No pelvic fins. Caudal fin is rounded.

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Massachusetts and Bermuda, south to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated.
Behavior
Swim above reefs and over sand. Normally solitary but can be found in small groups. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on benthic invertebrates.
Reference

Pg. 457, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Southern Stingray
Dasyatis americana



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Family Name
Dasyatidae
Max Size (cm)
150
Depth Range (m)
0 - 100
Distinct Features
Angular disk shaped with large wingspan; snout is angular but not projecting. Coloration is gray/light brown/olive at the dorsal surface, ventral surface is white. Tail is slender and ends in a point, the base of the tail is broad and has one large venemous spine at top of the tail.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to New Jersey and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, benthic and sandy bottoms.
Behavior
Covers itself with sand, dangerous to divers if harassed. Venomous
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on mollusks, crustaceans and occasionally small fish.
Reference

Pg. 531, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Spanish Grunt
Haemulon macrostomum



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Family Name
Haemulidae
Max Size (cm)
45
Depth Range (m)
1 - 40
Distinct Features
Oblong body, compressed. Sloping head with tapered body. Head is bluntly pointed. Silvery gray body. Top of head and upper dorsal area are greenish/yellow. The upper half of the body has three strong black stripes with small thin black stripes between the thicker ones. Stripes extend from the mouth to the caudal fin. Ventral body is dark to black. Yellowish saddle on top of the caudal peduncle. Yellowish outer edges of the dorsal fin, caudal and anal fin are dark. Broad yellowish outer edge on the caudal fin. Pelvic fin dark with white front edge. Dorsal: XII, 15-17. Anal: III, 9. Caudal: forked
Distribution
Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Prefer clear water by reefs.
Behavior
Drift alone or in small mixed schools of grunts near reefs.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on crustaceans and urchins.
Reference

Pg. 98, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Spanish Hogfish
Bodianus rufus



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Family Name
Labridae
Max Size (cm)
40
Depth Range (m)
1 - 70
Distinct Features
Robust body, compressed with a pointed snout and thick lips. Coloration in adults is blue/purple to deep red in the upper half of the head, upper third of the body and most of the dorsal fin. The rest of the body is yellow. Juvenile coloration is the same but with a black spot on the front of the dorsal fin. Dorsal: XII, 9-11; Anal: III, 12; Caudal: blunt with pointed tips.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to North Carolina, Bermuda and south to southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Common on open bottoms and also found on reefs.
Behavior
Can be observed digging in the sand for food. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds mostly on benthic invertebrates
Reference

Pg. 223, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Spotfin Butterflyfish
Chaetodon ocellatus



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Family Name
Chaetodontidae
Max Size (cm)
20
Depth Range (m)
0 - 91
Distinct Features
Oval body, strongly compressed. Pointed snout with small mouth. Overall body coloration is white with yellow fins. A black bar runs through the eye. There is a small, black spot at the back tip of the dorsal fin. There is also a yellow irregular bar over the edge of the operculum behind the eye. Pectoral fins are clear. Dorsal: XII-XIII, 18-20. Anal: III, 16-17. Caudal: slightly convex.

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Distribution
New England to Brazil, including Bahamas and Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Adults found on reefs, juveniles seen in seagrass beds.
Behavior
Often in pairs, swimming over the top of the reef.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on plankton
Reference

Pg. 31, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Spotted Drum
Equetus punctatus



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Family Name
Sciaenidae

Reference / Species×

Spotted Eagle Ray
Aetobatus narinari



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Family Name
Myliobatidae
Max Size (cm)
330
Depth Range (m)
1 - 80
Distinct Features
Dorsal side is black with many white spots. Ventral side is white. Pronounced head with a flattened snout, tapered. Two to six venomous spines at base of a long, slender tail.
Distribution
Migratory. Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Virginia, south to Brazil.
Habitats
Reefs and brackish waters. Amphidromous. Reef associated, but will cruise along sandy areas too.
Behavior
Solitary, but occasionally found in pairs and can form schools. Harmless to divers unless harassed, be aware of the venomous spines
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on mollusks and occasionally small fish
Reference

Pg. 533, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Spotted Goatfish
Pseudupeneus maculatus



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Family Name
Mullidae

Reference / Species×

Spotted Moray
Gymnothorax moringa



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Family Name
Muraenidae

Reference / Species×

Spotted Scorpionfish
Scorpaena plumieri



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Family Name
Scorpaenidae

Reference / Species×

Spotted Trunkfish
Lactophrys bicaudalis



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Family Name
Ostraciidae

Reference / Species×

Squirrelfish
Holocentrus adscensionis



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Family Name
Holocentridae
Max Size (cm)
45
Depth Range (m)
1 - 180
Distinct Features
Oblong, slender and compressed with a pointed head, large eyes and large mouth. Coloration is reddish upper and whitish/silver lower body and tail. Pectoral, pelvic, caudal and second dorsal fins are white; yellowish spiny first dorsal fin. Dorsal: XI, 14-16; Anal: III - IV, 10; Caudal: deeply forked with pointed tips.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to North Carolina, Bermuda and south to Brazil.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. During the day, mostly found in shaded areas. Most abundant at shallow patch reefs and walls.
Behavior
Occassionally swim in groups, produce sound that is audible to divers. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 249, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Stoplight Parrotfish
Sparisoma viride



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Family Name
Scaridae
Max Size (cm)
64
Depth Range (m)
1 - 50
Distinct Features
Elongated body, moderately deep and somewhat compressed. The head is relatively pointed. Teeth are fused into beak. Coloration for adult terminal phase is a green head and body with edge of operculum a pink color containing a yellow spot at the top. A purplish stripe extends from the mouth along the cheek; top of snout and head are purplish. Dorsal, anal, pelvic fins are pink with blue edges. Caudal fin is green with a yellow blotch at the base, and a yellow crescent just before the rear edge of the fin, and the rear edge is green. Initial phase coloration is brown above that fades to red below. Pale areas on the head the center of many of the upper body scales. Body scales have a checkered appearance with a distinct black border. Dorsal, pectoral, pelvic and anal fins are red. Caudal fin has a brown base, white center and broad red crescent at the rear edge. Juvenile coloration is brown above and reddish below. Three rows of white spots along the side of the midbody that starts at the operculum and extends to the tail base. Dark blotch behind the upper operculum, caudal fin is a dark reddish brown with a white bar on the base. Dorsal: IX, 10; Anal: III, 9; Caudal: straight in juveniles and concave with pointed tips in adult.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Found along the reefs.
Behavior
Juveniles form small schools with other juvenile parrotfish. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on algae from the corals.
Reference

Pg. 209, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Striped Parrotfish
Scarus iseri



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Family Name
Scaridae
Max Size (cm)
35
Depth Range (m)
1 - 30
Distinct Features
Elongated body, somewhat compressed. Bluntly pointed snout with teeth fused into a beak. Coloration for adults terminal phase is a grayish upper body that fades to a whitish. The scales have pink edges and the head is a blue/gray with yellow/pink. Dark purple/blue bordered stripe begins at the snout, crossing through the eye and ends at the center of the operculum. There is a also a black spot at the rear of the operculum. Behind this spot is a white stripe near the front midbody. Dorsal, anal and caudal fins are pinkish with a blue outer edge. Initial phase is a brownish/reddish/blackish upper body and tail base with two white stripes above and below the eye. Below the stripes is a pale gray. The snout is yellow. Juveniles coloration is pale with three dark stripes along the body and yellow snout, essentially a smaller version of the initial phase. Dorsal: IX, 10; Anal: III, 9; Caudal: blunt to slightly convex.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Found along the reef.
Behavior
Juveniles swim with mixed schools of S. taeniopterus. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on algae from the corals.
Reference

Pg. 211, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Tan Hamlet
Hypoplectrus randallorum



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Family Name
Serranidae
Max Size (cm)
13
Depth Range (m)
3 - 15
Distinct Features
Head and body is deep and strongly compressed. Snout is relatively short with downward pointing edges at the mouth. Dark spot may be present on the snout, and at the upper base of the pectoral fin. Usually a dark spot is present at the caudal peduncle to form a saddle. The body coloration will be tan to yellowish brown to darkish brown. If darkish brown, then the characteristic spots may not be obvious (Tan Type 2). The vental fins may have blue borders but this may not always be obvious. Dorsal: X, 14-17. Anal: III, 7. Caudal: slightly forked.

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Distribution
Florida Keys to the Caribbean but uncommon to the Bahamas and eastern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated.
Behavior
Usually solitary. Found near the bottom around soft and hard corals.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish and crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 153, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Threespot Damselfish
Stegastes planifrons



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Family Name
Pomacentridae
Max Size (cm)
12
Depth Range (m)
0 - 40
Distinct Features
Relatively deep oval and compressed, small mouth. Coloration in adults are entirely gray/brown with a tan tint to the lower head and body. Black spot on the base of the pectoral fin and occasionally on the base of the caudal fin. Top of the eye has a yellow crescent. Juvenile coloration is a bright yellow body and fins, large black spot on the anterior base of the dorsal fin with a smaller black dot at the base of the caudal fin. Dorsal: XII, 15-17; Anal: II, 13-14; Caudal: bluntly forked with large lobes.

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Reef tops and especially at areas of algal growth, prefers Acropora spp. coral formations
Behavior
Very territorial and will aggressively defend. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on algae and invertebrates
Reference

Pg. 137, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Tiger Grouper
Mycteroperca tigris



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Family Name
Serranidae

Reference / Species×

Tiger Shark
Galeocerdo cuvier



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Family Name
Carcharhinidae

Reference / Species×

Tobaccofish
Serranus tabacarius



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Family Name
Serranidae
Max Size (cm)
22
Depth Range (m)
1 - 94
Distinct Features
Elongate body, moderately compressed. The lower lip is exposed when mouth is closed (underbite). The snout is shorter than the length of the eye. The midbody is shades of orange to brown, with alternating blotches of white and dark brown on the upper body starting behind the eye. The dorsal fin has a brownish U shaped marking. Dorsal: X, 12. Anal: III, 7. Caudal: blunt

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Distribution
Georgia to Brazil, including Bermuda and the Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Often found in sandy, rubble areas near reefs.
Behavior
Usually solitary. Found hovering over sandy areas near reefs.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds primarily on crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 187, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Tomtate
Haemulon aurolineatum



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Family Name
Haemulidae
Max Size (cm)
25
Depth Range (m)
1 - 70
Distinct Features
Oblong body and compressed, deep and blunt head. Coloration is silvery white, dusky head with a gray snout. Two bronze yellow stripes, first is along midline from head to tail, and the second one along the upper half of the body. Faint stripes can be seen between these two distinct ones. A large dark blotch at base of the tail fin and the upper and lower borders of the caudal fin may be dark. Spot can be absent. Juvenile coloration is the same as the adult. Dorsal: XIII - XIV, 14-16; Anal: III, 9; Caudal: forked.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Massachusetts and Bermuda, south to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Often hide in the shade at bottom of reefs.
Behavior
Often found in large schools, mixed with other grunts. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish, crustaceans and other invertebrates.
Reference

Pg. 101, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Trumpetfish
Aulostomus maculatus



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Family Name
Aulostomidae
Max Size (cm)
100
Depth Range (m)
2 - 40
Distinct Features
Body is very elongated and somewhat compressed, the head is compressed with a tubular snout and barbel under the snout. Coloration is variable but is usually reddish brown to gray brown with faint blue lines and scattered black dots on the upper head and body. Two large black spots at the caudal peduncle. Dorsal: VIII - XIII, 21-25; Anal: 21-25; Caudal: rounded with pointed lobes.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Often found in soft coral stands and seagrass beds
Behavior
Solitary and often drift vertical in a feeding position. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish and invertebrates
Reference

Pg. 441, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

White Grunt
Haemulon plumierii



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Family Name
Haemulidae
Max Size (cm)
50
Depth Range (m)
0 - 40
Distinct Features
Oblong body and compressed, deep and blunt head. Coloration is yellow to bluish silver with yellow and blue stripes only on the head. Dorsal: XII, 15-17; Anal: III, 8-9; Caudal: forked.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Maryland and Bermuda, south to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated on hard bottoms and seagrass beds.
Behavior
Often in small to large mixed schools of other grunts. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish, crustaceans and other invertebrates.
Reference

Pg. 99, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

White Margate
Haemulon album



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Family Name
Haemulidae
Max Size (cm)
80
Depth Range (m)
1 - 60
Distinct Features
Oblong body and compressed, deep and blunt head. Small eyes, no distinct markings or patterns. Coloration is pearly gray to silvery. The soft dorsal fin and tail are dusky in color, and tail is deeply forked. Dorsal: XII, 16-17; Anal: III, 7-8; Caudal: forked.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated; found on hard bottoms and nearby soft bottoms like seagrass beds.
Behavior
Swim alone or in small schools. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish, crustaceans and other invertebrates.
Reference

Pg. 107, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Whitespotted Filefish
Cantherhines macrocerus



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Family Name
Monacanthidae
Max Size (cm)
46
Depth Range (m)
3 - 40
Distinct Features
Oblong body, deep and compressed with a long pointed snout and a small mouth with strong teeth. Coloration is variable but is usually brown or an irregular brown/orange pattern. Pale white spots can be seen over most of the body and head. A pair of white spots can be seen at the top and bottom of the base of the caudal fin. Spines on the caudal peduncle are yellow. Juvenile coloration is black with many white spots. Dorsal: II, 34-36; Anal: 29-32; Caudal: rounded.

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Coral and rocky reefs.
Behavior
Swim slowly around reef tops, can be found in pairs with one partner displaying the white spotted pattern. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on sponges, gorgonians and algae.
Reference

pg. 465, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Yellow Goatfish
Mulloidichthys martinicus



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Family Name
Mullidae
Max Size (cm)
40
Depth Range (m)
1 - 135
Distinct Features
Elongated, cylindrical body with the underside of the head and body nearly flat. Blunt snout with distinct barbels just below the mouth. Coloration is light olive upper body with whitish lower body. There is a single yellow stripe from eye to the base of the bright yellow caudal fin. Dorsal and anal fins can be a yellow tint. Two, distinctly spaced dorsal fins. Dorsal: VIII + I, 8; Anal: II, 6. Caudal: forked.

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Mostly observed in shallow coral reefs.
Behavior
Feed alone or in schools, observed using barbells to dig in the sand for food. Can also form mixed schools. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on benthic invertebrates.
Reference

Pg. 443, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Yellowbelly Hamlet
Hypoplectrus aberrans



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Family Name
Serranidae
Max Size (cm)
12
Depth Range (m)
3 - 15
Distinct Features
Head and body is deep and strongly compressed. Snout is relatively short with downward pointing edges at the mouth. The yellow on the underbelly extends to the tail. May have distinct blue markings along the face, but these may also be absent. The upper part of the body will be a purplish brown color that fades into the yellow of the underbody. The dorsal fin will be purple and yellowish. Dorsal: X, 14-17. Caudal: slightly forked.
Distribution
Bahamas to the Caribbean, but uncommon.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated.
Behavior
Usually solitary. Found near the bottom around soft and hard corals.
Feeding Ecology
Feed primarily on crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 151, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Yellowcheek Wrasse
Halichoeres cyanocephalus



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Family Name
Labridae

Reference / Species×

Yellowfin Grouper
Mycteroperca venenosa



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Family Name
Serranidae

Reference / Species×

Yellowhead Jawfish
Opistognathus aurifrons



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Family Name
Opistognathidae

Reference / Species×

Yellowhead Wrasse
Halichoeres garnoti



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Family Name
Labridae
Max Size (cm)
30
Depth Range (m)
2 - 90
Distinct Features
Elongated, compressed body. Continuous dorsal fin. Coloration for juvenile phase is yellow to yellow/brown with dark edges and a blue stripe down the midline. Initial phase coloration is dark/dusky upper portion of the head and dorsal portion of the body, while the bottom portion is yellow; two wavy lines radiate from the rear, upper eye. Terminal phase coloration is bright yellow head and forebody with a dark midbody bar that connects a broad black stripe along the dorsal side of the back body. Dorsal: IX, 10; Anal: III, 12; Caudal: bluntly rounded.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Sandy areas and rubble bottoms within and around edges of reef.
Behavior
Observed constantly swimming over sandy rubble areas; Terminal phase can observed swimming solitary, while juvenile and initial phases can be found schooling. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on invertebrates
Reference

pg. 229, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Yellowmouth Grouper
Mycteroperca interstitialis



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Family Name
Serranidae

Reference / Species×

Yellowtail Damselfish
Microspathodon chrysurus



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Family Name
Pomacentridae
Max Size (cm)
21
Depth Range (m)
0 - 40
Distinct Features
Deep, oblong thick body, compressed. Much larger than the other Pomacentrids. Coloration in adults is gray/brown body with scattered blue spots around the head, caudal fin is paler than the body and often yellow. Juveniles are dark blue with scattered intense blue spots, clear caudal fin. Dorsal: XII, 14-15; Anal: II, 12-13; Caudal: bluntly forked.

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Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Bermuda, south to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Found on coral and rock reefs.
Behavior
Maintain a small territory but do not aggressively defend domain. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on algae and coral polyps.
Reference

Pg. 141, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Yellowtail Hamlet
Hypoplectrus chlorurus



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Family Name
Serranidae
Max Size (cm)
15
Depth Range (m)
3 - 74
Distinct Features
Head and body is deep and strongly compressed. Snout is relatively short with downward pointing edges at the mouth. Distinct yellow tail , rest of the body will be dark purplish to black/brown. May have some faint bluish markings on the face, but are usually absent. Leading edge of the pelvic fins may be blue. Dorsal: X, 14-17. Caudal: slightly forked.

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Distribution
Bahamas to Caribbean, but uncommon to Florida.
Habitats
Marine, reef associated.
Behavior
Usually solitary. Found near the bottom around soft and hard corals.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish and crustaceans
Reference

Pg. 151, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Yellowtail Parrotfish
Sparisoma rubripinne



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Family Name
Scaridae
Max Size (cm)
50
Depth Range (m)
0 - 30
Distinct Features
Elongated, but robust body, somewhat compressed. Teeth fused to form a beak. Terminal phase head is relatively blunt, not seen in the initial phase. Initial phase: pale gray to brown, scale edges are darker. Base of the caudal fin and the caudal fin are yellow. Base of the pelvic and anal fin have a reddish tint. Terminal phase: dark greenish/gray body and fins with a dark blotch at the base of the pectoral fin. Caudal fin has pale yellow crescent along the outer edge. The iris of the eye is red. Dorsal: IX, 10. Anal: III, 9. Caudal: concave, but more obviously concave in terminal phase
Distribution
Bermuda to Southern Caribbean
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Shallow reefs and shallow areas of coral rubble and seagrass.
Behavior
May be found resting on the bottom. Can form schools, swimming around shallow reefs.
Feeding Ecology
Feeds on algae
Reference

Pg. 214-216, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Reference / Species×

Yellowtail Snapper
Ocyurus chrysurus



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Family Name
Lutjanidae
Max Size (cm)
86
Depth Range (m)
1 - 180
Distinct Features
Elongate oval body with a pointed head. Coloration has a distinct bright yellow stripe from the tip of snout, through the midbody to the bright yellow caudal fin. Yellow irregular spots can be found above the eye. Dorsal and anal fins are also yellow. Dorsal: X, 12-13; Anal: III, 9; Caudal: deeply forked.
Distribution
Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico. North to Massachusetts and Bermuda, south to Brazil
Habitats
Marine, reef associated. Juveniles can be found in seagrass beds.
Behavior
Solitary or can form schools to feed above the reef. Harmless to divers.
Feeding Ecology
Feed on fish and invertebrates.
Reference

Pg. 123, Humann, P. and DeLoach, N. (2014). Reef Fish Identification: Florida Caribbean Bahamas. New World Publications Incorporated.

Fishes: Greater Caribbean by Yunke International Inc & the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Fishbase.org

Select Fish: Boxy×

Balloonfish
Bandtail Puffer
Bridled Burrfish
Checkered Puffer
Honeycomb Cowfish
Porcupinefish
Scrawled Cowfish
Sharpnose Puffer
Smooth Trunkfish
Spotted Trunkfish

Select Fish: Camouflaged, Frills×

Lionfish
Plumed Scorpionfish
Spotted Scorpionfish

Select Fish: Deep Ovals, Flat Body×

Black Durgon
Ocean Triggerfish
Orangespotted Filefish
Peacock Flounder
Queen Triggerfish
Sargassum Triggerfish
Scrawled Filefish
Slender Filefish
Whitespotted Filefish

Select Fish: Disks & Ovals×

Banded Butterflyfish
Barred Hamlet
Beaugregory
Bicolor Damselfish
Black Hamlet
Blue Chromis
Blue Hamlet
Blue Tang
Brown Chromis
Butter Hamlet
Cocoa Damselfish
Doctorfish
Dusky Damselfish
Foureye Butterflyfish
French Angelfish
Gray Angelfish
Indigo Hamlet
Longfin Damselfish
Ocean Surgeonfish
Queen Angelfish
Reef Butterflyfish
Rock Beauty
Sergeant Major
Shy Hamlet
Spotfin Butterflyfish
Tan Hamlet
Threespot Damselfish
Yellowbelly Hamlet
Yellowtail Damselfish
Yellowtail Hamlet

Select Fish: Eel Like×

Brown Garden Eel
Chain Moray
Goldentail Moray
Goldspotted Eel
Green Moray
Spotted Moray

Select Fish: Elongated Body×

Blackbar Soldierfish
Blackear Wrasse
Bluehead
Bluelip Parrotfish
Chalk Bass
Clown Wrasse
Creole Wrasse
Dwarf Wrasse
Green Razorfish
Greenblotch Parrotfish
Harlequin Bass
Highhat
Jackknife Fish
Lantern Bass
Longjaw Squirrelfish
Longspine Squirrelfish
Midnight Parrotfish
Princess Parrotfish
Puddingwife
Queen Parrotfish
Rainbow Parrotfish
Redband Parrotfish
Redtail Parrotfish
Reef Squirrelfish
Rosy Razorfish
Slippery Dick
Spanish Hogfish
Spotted Drum
Squirrelfish
Stoplight Parrotfish
Striped Parrotfish
Tobaccofish
Yellowcheek Wrasse
Yellowhead Wrasse
Yellowtail Parrotfish

Select Fish: Heavy Body×

Black Grouper
Coney
Goliath Grouper
Graysby
Hogfish
Nassau Grouper
Red Hind
Rock Hind
Tiger Grouper
Yellowfin Grouper
Yellowmouth Grouper

Select Fish: Sharks & Rays×

Atlantic Stingray
Blacktip Shark
Great Hammerhead
Lemon Shark
Nurse Shark
Reef Shark
Southern Stingray
Spotted Eagle Ray
Tiger Shark

Select Fish: Silvery Body×

Bar Jack
Blue Runner
Crevalle Jack
Great Barracuda
Horse-eye Jack

Select Fish: Slender Body×

Sand Diver
Sand Tilefish
Sharksucker
Trumpetfish

Select Fish: Sloping Heads×

Black Margate
Bluestriped Grunt
Caesar Grunt
Cottonwick
Cubera Snapper
Dog Snapper
Freckled Soapfish
French Grunt
Gray Snapper
Greater Soapfish
Lane Snapper
Mahogany Snapper
Mutton Snapper
Pluma
Porkfish
Redspotted Hawkfish
Sailors Choice
Schoolmaster
Smallmouth Grunt
Spanish Grunt
Spotted Goatfish
Tomtate
White Grunt
White Margate
Yellow Goatfish
Yellowtail Snapper

Select Fish: Tiny, Elongated×

Bridled Goby
Cleaning Goby
Colon Goby
Diamond Blenny
Fairy Basslet
Goldspot Goby
Masked Goby
Neon Goby
Pallid Goby
Peppermint Goby
Roughhead Blenny
Saddled Blenny
Sailfin Blenny
Sharknose Goby
Yellowhead Jawfish

Select Fish: Angelfish×

French Angelfish
Gray Angelfish
Queen Angelfish
Rock Beauty

Select Fish: Bass & Hamlet×

Barred Hamlet
Black Hamlet
Blue Hamlet
Butter Hamlet
Chalk Bass
Harlequin Bass
Indigo Hamlet
Lantern Bass
Shy Hamlet
Tan Hamlet
Tobaccofish
Yellowbelly Hamlet
Yellowtail Hamlet

Select Fish: Blennies×

Diamond Blenny
Roughhead Blenny
Saddled Blenny
Sailfin Blenny

Select Fish: Boxfishes×

Honeycomb Cowfish
Scrawled Cowfish
Smooth Trunkfish
Spotted Trunkfish

Select Fish: Butterflyfish×

Banded Butterflyfish
Foureye Butterflyfish
Reef Butterflyfish
Spotfin Butterflyfish

Select Fish: Damselfish×

Beaugregory
Bicolor Damselfish
Blue Chromis
Brown Chromis
Cocoa Damselfish
Dusky Damselfish
Longfin Damselfish
Sergeant Major
Threespot Damselfish
Yellowtail Damselfish

Select Fish: Drums×

Highhat
Jackknife Fish
Spotted Drum

Select Fish: Eels×

Brown Garden Eel
Chain Moray
Goldentail Moray
Goldspotted Eel
Green Moray
Spotted Moray

Select Fish: Filefish×

Orangespotted Filefish
Scrawled Filefish
Slender Filefish
Whitespotted Filefish

Select Fish: Goatfish×

Spotted Goatfish
Yellow Goatfish

Select Fish: Gobies×

Bridled Goby
Cleaning Goby
Colon Goby
Goldspot Goby
Masked Goby
Neon Goby
Pallid Goby
Peppermint Goby
Sharknose Goby

Select Fish: Grouper×

Black Grouper
Coney
Goliath Grouper
Graysby
Nassau Grouper
Red Hind
Rock Hind
Tiger Grouper
Yellowfin Grouper
Yellowmouth Grouper

Select Fish: Grunts×

Black Margate
Bluestriped Grunt
Caesar Grunt
Cottonwick
French Grunt
Porkfish
Sailors Choice
Smallmouth Grunt
Spanish Grunt
Tomtate
White Grunt
White Margate

Select Fish: Jacks×

Bar Jack
Blue Runner
Crevalle Jack
Horse-eye Jack

Select Fish: Parrotfish×

Bluelip Parrotfish
Greenblotch Parrotfish
Midnight Parrotfish
Princess Parrotfish
Queen Parrotfish
Rainbow Parrotfish
Redband Parrotfish
Redtail Parrotfish
Stoplight Parrotfish
Striped Parrotfish
Yellowtail Parrotfish

Select Fish: Porcupinefish×

Balloonfish
Bridled Burrfish
Porcupinefish

Select Fish: Porgies×

Pluma

Select Fish: Puffers×

Bandtail Puffer
Checkered Puffer
Sharpnose Puffer

Select Fish: Scorpionfish×

Lionfish
Plumed Scorpionfish
Spotted Scorpionfish

Select Fish: Sharks & Rays×

Atlantic Stingray
Blacktip Shark
Great Hammerhead
Lemon Shark
Nurse Shark
Reef Shark
Southern Stingray
Spotted Eagle Ray
Tiger Shark

Select Fish: Snapper×

Cubera Snapper
Dog Snapper
Gray Snapper
Lane Snapper
Mahogany Snapper
Mutton Snapper
Schoolmaster
Yellowtail Snapper

Select Fish: Soapfish×

Freckled Soapfish
Greater Soapfish

Select Fish: Squirrelfish×

Blackbar Soldierfish
Longjaw Squirrelfish
Longspine Squirrelfish
Reef Squirrelfish
Squirrelfish

Select Fish: Surgeonfish×

Blue Tang
Doctorfish
Ocean Surgeonfish

Select Fish: Triggerfish×

Black Durgon
Ocean Triggerfish
Queen Triggerfish
Sargassum Triggerfish

Select Fish: Wrasses×

Blackear Wrasse
Bluehead
Clown Wrasse
Creole Wrasse
Dwarf Wrasse
Green Razorfish
Hogfish
Puddingwife
Rosy Razorfish
Slippery Dick
Spanish Hogfish
Yellowcheek Wrasse
Yellowhead Wrasse

Select Fish: Other×

Fairy Basslet
Great Barracuda
Peacock Flounder
Redspotted Hawkfish
Sand Diver
Sand Tilefish
Sharksucker
Trumpetfish
Yellowhead Jawfish